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KAS Mains Concepts

General Studies 1

Section - I : History and Cultural Heritage (India & Karnataka)

(Unit 1: Cultural Heritage of India (select areas and topics)

  1. Indus Civilization – Distinction between Indus Civilization and Vedic Civilization– Evolution of Varna, Jathi/caste system – Religious condition – emergence of religious movements.
  2. Science and Technology: Mathematics, Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, Physiology and Medicine (including Surgery), Ship-building, Mining and Metallurgy, Engineering and Architecture.
  3. Arts (Excluding Karnataka): The Maurya and Gupta periods; The Khajuraho temples; Jain temples at Mount Abu and the Odishyan temples; Pallava, Chola and Pandyan contributions. The Mughal architecture; Cathedral architecture: Bom Jesus-Old Goa, St. Paul’s- Kolkata and St. Thomas- Chennai. Painting : Ajanta frescoes; Mughal and Rajput schools of painting. Dance and Music: Classical music and dance; Mughal contributions to music. Folk arts of India.
  4. India’s cultural contributions to the outside world: Central Asia, China, Japan, South-East Asia and Sri Lanka.
  5. Religions of India-
    1. Hindu Dharma: General characteristics and some common beliefs – Purusharthas– rituals and ethics – festivals and sacred days – pilgrimage and fairs. Hindu sects: Hinduism as a federation of various sects – Shaiva, Vaishnava and Shakta. Philosophy of the Upanishad and the BhagavadGita – Yoga Philosophy of Pathanjali
    2. Jainism: Principles – Ratnatraya, code of morals, Equality (samana), Ahimsa,. Sects: Digambara and Swethambara.
    3. Buddhism: Principles – Four noble truths, The Eight – fold path, Nirvana, Moral doctrines. Sects: Hinayana and Mahayana
    4. Christianity: Teachings of Jesus Christ. Christian doctrines and theology. Groups in Christianity – The Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern orthodox churches and the Protestants churches. Missionary activities in India
    5. Islam: Principles and practices – God, Confession of Faith, Five “Pillars of Islam”, sacred places and days, the family system and the shariah, Sufis of Karnataka, Sects: Shia and Sunni.
    6. Sikhism: Principles and practices and its Evolution.

Unit 2: Toward transforming Indian Society: Major schools of thought.

    Modern Indian History – from the beginning of 19th Century, Reforms and Reformers,

  1. Eradication of Social and religious wrongs
  2. The Vedas for all – The Casteless society
  3. Ideal of service
  4. Emancipation of the Depressed class
  5. “Two-Nation” theory and Islamic revivalism
  6. Empowerment of the Depressed class through religion and education
  7. Hindutva and Patriotism
  8. The Dravida Movement
  9. Struggle for emancipation of Dalits and their empowerment
  10. Socialist approach and Total Revolution
  11. Gram Swaraj, Satyagraha and Bhoodana

Unit 3: From Kadambas to the Hoysalas.

  1. Antiquity of Karnataka; Kannada language and literature; Extent of Kannadanadu; State and District Gazetteers; Museums and Archives in Karnataka; Preservation and protection of historical monuments – work of Archaeological Survey of India – World Heritage Sites in Karnataka.
  2. From Kadambas to the Hoysalas : Contributions to Architecture, sculpture, literature and religion.

Unit 4 : The Vijayanagara Empire and thereafter (1336-1799).

  1. Vijayanagara Empire: Origin, aims and aspiration of the Empire – Vidyaranya. Political history: Harihara, Bukka, Immadi Devaraya, Krishnadevaraya and Aliya Ramaraya – The battle of Talikote and its consequences. Glory of the capital – Administration – Society, economy and religion; Arts: Painting; Music, Dance, Literature, Architecture and Sculpture; Foreign accounts of Vijayanagara.
  2. Religious sects: Shankaracharya, Ramanujacharya, Madhwacharya – Sri Basaveshvara, Veerashaivism and Vachana movement – Haridasa movement – Kalamukha, Shakta and Pashupatha sects.
  3. The Bahman Shahis : Mahamud Gawan - Contributions of the Bahamani – Adil Shahis of Bijapur: Contributions to literature and architecture – Sufis in Karnataka.
  4. Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar Contributions; The Nayakas of Keladi and Chitradurga; Rani Chennamma & Sangolli Rayanna of Kittur, The Yalahanka Nadaprabhu; Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan (1761-1799).

Unit 5: Modern Mysore (1799-1947).

  1. Krishna raja Wodeyar III – his contributions;
  2. Armed rebellion in Karnataka against the British in Karnataka
  3. Commissioner’s Rule (1831-1881)
  4. Nizam’s rule in Hyderabad – Karnataka
  5. Progress of Mysore under the Dewans.

Unit 6 : Freedom Movement in Karnataka and Unification (1885-1956).

  1. Rise of Nationalism; Pre-Gandhian era (1885-1920); Gandhian era (1920-1948).
  2. Freedom movement in Hyderabad – Karnataka
  3. Important personalities in Freedom Struggle.
  4. Unification of Karnataka; Causes for the rise of unification movement Alur Venkatrao Role of literacy, cultural associations and print media Three stages in the unification of Karnataka (1947-1956).
  5. Social and Cultural developments: Spread of education by missionary and voluntary bodies – printing and the press Literary and Scholarly studies New literary genres in kannada literature Backward Class movement Miller Committee Report, Folk arts of Karnataka.

Section II - Social and Political Perspective

  1. Unit 1. Post Independent Karnataka – Towards Political Consolidation – Attempts of Successive Governments – Backward Classes and Social Justice – Reports of : Havnur Committee - Venkataswamy Committee – Chinnappa Reddy Committee – Recent Trends – Dalit Movement – Devaraja Urs and Land Reforms. Language Issue: Gokak Movement – Issues and Perspectives. Inter-State Disputes - Boundary Disputes – Mahajan Committee Report and its impact – Water Disputes - Farmer’s Movement, Regional Imbalance & Nanjundappa committee Report.
  2. Unit 2. Social Change and Movements –Social structure and social change, Theories of Social Change, Social Disorganisation and Social movements, directed social change, social policy and social development.
  3. Unit 3. Social Change and Modernisation - Problems of role conflict – intergenerational gap, youth unrest & commercialization of education, emergence of India as Educational Force - changing status of women and social movements, industrialization and urbanization, role of pressure groups, Sanskritisation, westernisation and modernization Modernism versus traditionalism. Current social evils – fundamentalism and terrorism, Naxalism, Nepotism, corruption, and black money.
  4. Unit 4. Government and Political System – Legislature, Executive and Judiciary, functioning of democratic political system in a traditional society, political party and their social composition.
  5. Unit 5. Decentralisation of power – Decentralisation of power and political participation. Union Government, Parliament, Cabinet, Supreme court, Judicial review, Center-State relations, State government, role of Governor, Panchayathi raj, class and caste in Indian politics, politics of regionalism, linguism, and communalism. Problems of secularisation policy and national integration, Political participation & voting, vote bank politics.
  6. Unit 6. Socio Economic System. The Jajmani system and its bearing on traditional society. Market Economy and its social consequences, Occupational diversification and social structure, Profession and professionalisation, role of trade unions, social determinants and consequence of economical development, economic inequalities, exploitation and corruption, Globalisation and its social impact.
  7. Unit 7. Rural Social system and Rural Development – Socio cultural dimensions of village community, traditional power structure, democratization and leadership, poverty, indebtedness, bonded labour, social consequences of land reforms, Rural development projects, green revolution, new strategies of rural development, the changing rural scene.

Section III – Indian Economy – Planning- Rural Development

  1. Unit 1. Indian Economy – Post independence growth - experience of agriculture, industry and tertiary sectors, growth and distributive justice. Poverty and inequality, Growth of Karnataka Economy during the plan era, growth and sectoral changes and linkages in the State Economy.
  2. Unit 2. India and International economic relations– Growth and trade – volume, composition and direction of exports and imports, domestic and foreign capital in economic development, changes in India’s foreign trade policy, balance of payments and foreign exchange. Karnataka’s exports – volume, composition, and direction.
  3. Unit 3. Development patterns and disparities among regions and between rural and urban areas, public policies to mitigate disparities, prospects and problems of Special economic zones. Development disparities in Karnataka and public policies, Redressel of development disparities. Regional development boards.
  4. Unit 4. Planning – Planning goals, objectives and approaches, achievements and failures of five year plans (I to VII Five year plans). Development plans under the new economic policies regime (VIII Five year plan onwards). Planning in Karnataka.
  5. Unit 5. Decentralization – pros and cons of top-down planning and bottom-up planning, planning mechanism and experience in Panchayathi raj institutions, planning and capacity building, planning and financing. Decentralized planning in Karnataka, Resource mobilization and devolution. District Planning Committee, State finances and local finances. State finance commission.
  6. Unit 6. Rural Development – Importance of agriculture in the national economy, Gandhian approach to rural development and land reforms, size of farms and productivity, problems of irrigation and dry land farming, food security, rural credit, agricultural marketing, agricultural labour, rural industries and employment. Agricultural problems in Karnataka, Rural Economic infrastructure (Energy, Irrigation, Transport, Communication, Markets), Rural Social Infrastructure - Housing, Drinking water, Sanitation & Drainage, Rural Health systems and their delivery. Development of Economic and Social infrastructure in Karnataka, Rural markets in Karnataka. Rural housing and health care schemes in Karnataka.
  7. Unit 7. Rural Development Initiatives – Poverty Alleviation-cum-Employment generation Programmes, Five Year Plan and inclusive growth, rural financial institutions, Development and conservation of common property resources in rural areas – village grasslands and woods, water bodies, Provision of urban amenities in rural areas (PURA). Rural Development schemes in Karnataka, self help groups and micro finance institutions in Karnataka, External assistance for rural tank rejuvenation, drinking water, sanitation and health care in Karnataka.
  8. Unit 8. Data Collection Analysis- Interpretation- Collection, Interpret at ion and Appreciation of Statistical Data- Study of Graphs and Charts:– Bar Graphs, Line Graphs and Pie Charts- Problems Based on Tabular and Diagrammatical Data- Data Sufficiency in Statistics- Problems Based on Probability- Permutations and Combinations-Quantitative Aptitude – Number Sequences, Series, Averages, Number Systems, Ratio and Proportion, Profit and Loss, Percentages, Time and work, Speed-Time-Distance, Simple Interest, Analytical and Critical Reasoning, Reading Comprehension

General Studies 2

Section I - Physical Features and Natural Resources

Geography Of The World

  1. Lithosphere Place of Earth in the Solar System, Rocks, Earthquakes, Volcanoes, Plate tectonics, Agents of Erosion. Atmosphere Structure and Composition Elements of Climate and weather Broad Climatic types. Hydrosphere World Oceans Salinity – Ocean currents and Tides Ocean Deposits.
  2. Physiography of Continents and Demographic distribution Mountains, Rivers, Forests, Grass lands, Deserts, Human Races, Population Change, distribution and demographic transition, density, sex ratio, quality of life, life expectancy, literacy, standard of living and migration.

Geography Of India

  1. Physiography of India Climate, Rivers, Soil, Natural vegetation. Mineral Resources: Iron ore and Manganese Copper and Bauxite Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas, Nuclear Deposits. Major crops Distribution and production of cereals, millets, oilseeds, plantation crops, commercial crops. Indian Demography Growth, Composition, Distribution, Density, Human Development Index. Demographic Database.
  2. Industrial Planning and Development: Growth and Distribution of Major, Medium, Small and Tiny Industries Industrial regions of India. Industrial infrastructure Railways, Roads, and Ports. Backward regions and rural industrialization. Regional Planning and Development Tribal and hill areas, drought prone areas, command areas and river basins. Classification of Towns and Cities. Urban Structure.


  1. Physiographic divisions Climate, Rivers, rainfall distribution, Natural vegetation and Soil. Agriculture and Agro climatic regions, Major crops, Plantation and commercial crops of Karnataka. Mineral Resources of Karnataka. Sources of Power (Hydro, Thermal, Solar, Nuclear and Wind). Major, Medium and Small Scale industries, Agro based Industries. Transportation and Communication Systems in Karnataka. Geographic information system.
  2. Urban Land use Policy and Urbanisation Demographic features Literacy and Urbanisation. Population Problems and policies, Literacy, City classification and urban spheres of influence, rural urban fringe, problems of urban growth. Land use, Town planning, slums and urban housing. Intra and Inter regional trade and the role of rural Market centers

Section II - Overview of Indian Constitution

  1. Unit 1. Nature of the Constitution-Constitutional developments, salient features of Constitution: Preamble, Directive Principles of State Policy, Indian federation, etc.
  2. Unit 2. Fundamental rights Right to Equality, Right to Freedom, Right against exploitation, Right to freedom of religion, Cultural and Educational rights, Right to Constitutional remedies. Reasonable restrictions - Provision for schedule caste, schedule tribe and minorities, Reservations for SC/ST and OBC’s, preventions of SC/ST Atrocities Act, National and State SC/ST Commission
  3. Unit 3. Distribution of Legislative powers Between the Union and the State, Administrative and Financial relations between the union and the states, Powers and functions of constitutional bodies. Powers and Functions Governor, Council of Ministers and Cabinet, Judicial remedies.
  4. Unit 4. Unicameral and Bicameral legislations Functions and crisis of accountability, delegated legislation, Legislative procedure and committees of legislature, legislative and judicial control over the delegated legislation, judicial review of administrative action. Comptroller and Auditor General of India, Attorney General of India.
  5. Unit 5. Important Amendments of the Constitution Basic structure theory, Emergency provisions and decentralization, Panchayathi raj, Seventy-third and Seventy-fourth amendments etc.,
  6. Unit 6. Welfare mechanism in India Directive principles of State policy and their relationships, Right to property, Election Commission, Public Service Commissions, Women’s commission, National and State Minorities commission, Backward Commission, Human Rights Commission, Information Commission, Finance Commission, Planning Commission, National Development Council.
  7. Unit 7. Services under the Union and State Constitutional provisions relating to Government and public servants.

General Studies 3

Section-I, Role and Impact of Science and Technology in Development of Indian, Information Technology In Public Domain

  • Unit 1. Natural Science (20 bold)
    1. Plants - crop plants, forest species, medicinal and aromatic plants, usefulness of plants and human affairs (utility), photosynthesis, transpiration, harmful plants. Common classification of animals - domestic and wild animals. Usefulness of animals and human affairs (utility).
    2. Microorganisms: Common bacteria, virus, fungi and their beneficial and harmful effect on mankind.
  • Unit 2. Agriculture Science
    1. Agriculture scenario and importance of agriculture in the national and state Crop production and protection. Chemical Fertilizers and Vermi compost. Cost benefit and investment analysis of agricultural enterprises.
    2. Programmes for production and productivity enhancement - green, white, yellow, blue recent trends in organic farming and farm mechanization. Farming systems and sustainability. Agro-processing and agro-based industries.
    3. Post-harvest technology and value addition. Management of land and water resources.
  • Unit 3. Horticulture and Sericulture
    1. Importance of Horticulture-floriculture, vegetables, fruits, plantation crops, spices, aromatic and medicinal plants. Hi- tech horticulture (green / poly house cultivation). Post-harvest management and value
    2. Special promotional programmes for horticulture development.
    3. Sericulture: Importance of sericulture in India and Karnataka, distribution of mulberry and non-mulberry sericulture (area, production and productivity across states), cocoon production.
  • Unit 4. Initiatives in Biotechnology
    1. Concept of biotechnology, introduction and application of genetic engineering and stem cells research. Molecular breeding and marker assisted selection. Transgenic plants (genetically modified) and their beneficial and harmful effects on environment and Biotechnology in agriculture (bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides, bio-fuels, tissue culture, cloning).
    2. Food bio-technology, food safety and microbial standards, food quality standards, food laws and regulations.
  • Unit 5. Animal Husbandry (veterinary, dairy and fishery sciences)
    1. Importance of livestock in the national and state economy. Important exotic and Indian breeds of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, swine and poultry.
    2. Milk production management and dairy Milk Cooperative Unions and their role in rural economy- AMUL, KMF.
    3. Fisheries resources in India-Marine fisheries resources and potential, exclusive economic zone of India, coastal aquaculture and Mari Inland water resources, commercially important fishes, responsible fishing. Ornamental fish production. Value addition of livestock products and quality control
  • Unit 6. Agriculture development policies programmes and trade
    1. Salient Features of National and Karnataka state agricultural policies, Agriculture Price Policy, National Seed Policy, Agricultural Credit Policy, National Agricultural Research System (NARS).
    2. Farmers welfare programmes in India, Farm women development programmes, Agriculture under Five Year Plans, Development / strengthening of agricultural marketing infrastructure-Grading and Standardization, Crop Insurance Scheme-National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS), Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS), Food Security, National Watershed Development Programme, Export potential of agriculture-horticulture-livestock
    3. Commercialization and globalization of agriculture - WTO, AoA (Agreement on Agriculture).
  • Unit 7. Health and Hygiene
    1. Human Digestive, circulatory, respiratory, excretory and reproductive systems. Allopathic, Indian System of Medicine, Naturopathy and Yoga (AYUSH), NRHM, National HIV Programme, Tuberculosis programme, P and SM (Preventive and Social Medicine), Diseases - Communicable diseases, epidemic diseases, endemic diseases, vector borne diseases.
    2. Basic knowledge of infections caused by different groups of microorganisms Gastroenteritis, cholera, tuberculosis, malaria, viral infections, HIV, encephalitis, chikungunya, bird flu, dengue, preventive measures during out breaks.
    3. Vaccines, introduction to immunity, production of DPT and rabies vaccine and hepatitis
    4. Application of immunological methods in diagnosis. Health awareness Programme, Etc.,

Section – III Challenges and Issues of Development on Environment & Ecology

  • Unit 1. Environmental Segments:
    1. Promotion and protection –forest conservation and
    2. Protection of Wild Life, Project Tiger, National parks and Sanctuaries, Impact of mining on forest and environment. Red Data Book: Endangered species, Eco Tourism and any other related current issues.
  • Unit 2. Natural Resources
    1. Forest - Types and conservation of forest and forest resources. Water resources-flood and drought occurrences, water resource management, Land resources. Rain water harvesting, Infrastructure development Dams, Roads, Rails, Bridges, Industry, urbanization and waste water management, acquisition and rehabilitation and other issues due to human interventions and any other related current issues.
  • Unit 3. Eco System and Biodiversity
    1. Ecology – Basic concepts of ecology, Eco System, Food Chain, Biodiversity and its conservation, Hot spots of Biodiversity, threats to diversity, forest sustainable development and management, any other related current issues, IPR.
  • Unit 4. Environment Pollution and Solid Waste Management
    1. Air Pollution, Water pollution, Soil Pollution, Noise Pollution and remedies. Solid waste Management Types of Solid waste management, factors affecting the solid waste generation, Impact of solid waste, Recycling and reuse. Any other related Current issues. Environment protection Act, Air (prevention and control of pollution), water (prevention and control of pollution), water pollution Cess Act.
  • Unit 5. Role of Information Technology in Environment and Human Health:
    1. Global Environmental issues like Climate change, acid rains, global warming, wasteland reclamation, watershed management, watershed approach for sustainable development, linking of rivers, water crisis. Any other related current issues.
  • Unit 6. State community - civil society interface, Joint forest management system:
    1. Community participation, Development, Displacement and Rehabilitation. Disaster Management, Sustainable Forest Development. Flood, earthquake, drought, tsunami, Global warming Ozone layer, CFC, carbon credit.

General Studies 4

Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude

  • This paper will include questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered• This paper will include questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered
  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics - in private and public relationships. Human Values - lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
  • Case Studies on above issues