UPSC Polity : Salient Features And Preamble To The Constitution -1

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1) What is the correct order in which the following terms are enshrined in the Preamble to the Constitution of India?

a) Equality                     b) Liberty                     c) Justice                     d) Fraternity

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

a) a, b, c and d                     b) c, b, a and d                     c) b, a, c and d             d) c, a, b and d

Ans      B

Explanation:    (These are the opening words of the preamble to the Indian Constitution

“We, The People of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens:

Justice, Social, economic and Political;

Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; Equality of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all

Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;

In Our Constituent Assembly this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, Do Hereby Adopt, Enact And Give To Ourselves This Constitution).

2) Consider the following statements about a constitutional government. A Constitutional government is

  1. A form of limited government
  2. One where authority is derived from the constitution
  3. One where the constitution and the laws limit the exercise of power
  4. Where the head of the state enjoys nominal powers.
  5. Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

a) 1, 2 and 3                     b) 2, 3 and 4                     c) 1, 3 and 4               d) 1, 2 and 4

Ans      A

Explanation:    (Most constitutions seek to regulate the relationship between institutions of the state, in a basic sense the relationship between the executive, legislature and the judiciary, but also the relationship of institutions within those branches. For example, executive branches can be divided into a head of government, government departments/ministries, executive agencies and a civil service/administration. Most constitutions also attempt to define the relationship between individuals and the state, and to establish the broad rights of individual citizens.)

3) Given below are two statements one labelled as Assertion a) and the other labelled as Reason (R):

Assertion a): Parliamentary form of government is the most acceptable system in the entire world today.

Reason (R): In the parliamentary system, ministers get their democratic legitimacy from the legislature and are accountable to it.


a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

c) (A) is true, but (R) is false d) (A) is false, but (R) is true

Ans      A

Explanation:    (A parliamentary system of government means that the executive branch of government has the direct or indirect support of the direct or indirect support of the parliament. This support is usually shown by a vote of confidence. The relationship between the executive and the legislature in a parliamentary system is called responsible government. The separation of powers between the executive and lawmaking branches is not as obvious as it is in a presidential system, so there are different ways of balancing powers between the three branches which govern the country (the executive (or ministers), the law makers and the judges). Parliamentary systems usually have a head of government and a head of state. The head of government is the prime minister, who has the real power. The head of state often is an elected (either popularly or through parliament) president or, in the case of a constitutional monarchy, hereditary).

4) Which one is not an element of the Secular State is India?

a) Civil Equality                                                             b) Freedom of Religion

c) No religious education by the State                          d) Taxation on religious property

Ans      D

5) Give below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion a) and the other labelled as Reason (R).

Assertion a): The secular ideology of the Indian State appears to be paradox in view of the deeply religious orientation of the Indian society.

Reason (R): India’s secularism was invented for integrating the multicultural plurality of the society into a common nation state as well as for containing potentialities of the imperial ‘divide and rule’ and Muslim Leagues’ ‘two – nation’ theory in British India.


a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

c) (A) is true but (R) is false

d) (R) is true but (A) is false.

Ans      A

6) Who prefers to characterize the Indian federalism as “bar-gaining federalism”?

a) A.K.Chanda                     b) Morris Jones                     c) K.C.Wheare             d) D.D.Basu

Ans      B

Explanation:    (In 1964 Morris Jones described the centre-state relation in India as a form of cooperative federalism. He however characterized it as bargaining federalism, Morris-Jones argued described the character of Indian federalism throughout it referred to a pattern of centre-state relations in which neither centre nor states can impose decisions on the others in which hard comp elative bargaining takes place in such institution as the planning Commission, the Finance Commission and the Zonal Councils. In these institutions bargaining occurs between the centre and the states and among, the several states for the allocation of resources and patronage and for the solution of such divisive problems as the rights of linguistic minorities in the linguistically recognized states).

7) The Preamble f the Constitution of India enshrines the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity – ideals mainly inspired by the

a) Russian Revolution                     b) Irish Revolution

c) French Revolution                       d) Cultural Revolution

Ans      C

Explanation:    (Liberty, equality, fraternity is the national motto of France. It finds its origins in the French Revolution, it was then only one motto among others and was not institutionalized until the Third Republic at the end of the 19th century. Debates concerning the compatibility and order of the three terms began at the same time as the Revolution).

8) This question consists of two statements, one labelled as Assertion a) and the other labelled as Reason (R).

a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

b) Both (A) and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

c) (A) is true, but (R) is false.

d) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

Assertion (A): The presidential system is successful only in the U.S.A.

Reason(R): The United States of America is the only nation with minor contradictions that ensures the success of the presidential system.

Ans      B

Explanation:    (Presidential systems are numerous and diverse, but the following are generally true:

  1. The executive can veto legislative acts and in turn, a supermajority of lawmakers may override the veto. The veto is generally derived from the British tradition of royal assent in which an act of parliament can only be enacted with the assent of the monarch.
  2. The president has a fixed term of office. Elections are held at regular times and cannot be triggered by a vote of confidence or other parliamentary procedures. Although in some countries there is an exception, which provides for the removal of a president who is found to have broken a law.
  3. The executive branch is unipersonal. Members of the cabinet serve at the pleasure of the president and must carry out the policies of the executive and legislative branches. Cabinet ministers or executive departmental chiefs are not members of the legislature. However, presidential systems often need legislative approval of executive nominations to the cabinet, judiciary, and various lower governmental posts. A president generally can direct members of the cabinet, military, or any officer or employee of the executive branch, but cannot direct or dismiss judges.
  4. The president can often pardon or commute sentences of convicted criminals.
  5. Countries that feature a presidential system of government are not exclusive users of the title of President. For example, a dictator, who may or may not have been popularly or legitimately elected may be and often is called a president. Likewise, leaders of one-party states are often called presidents. Most parliamentary republics have presidents, but this position is largely ceremonial; notable examples include Germany, India, Ireland, Israel and Italy. The title is also used in parliamentary republics with an executive presidency, and also in semi-presidential systems).

9) In which of the following forms of Government is the second chamber as indispensable part of legislature?

a) Presidential                     b) Parliamentary                     c) Unitary                    d) Federal

Ans      D

10) Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below the lists:

List- I                                                                                      List-II

(Form of Government)                                                                   (Name of the Country)

a) Parliamentary, Federal Republican                                              The United Kingdom

b) Presidential, Federal Republican                                                  India

c) Parliamentary, Unitary, Monarchical                                              France

d) Parliamentary cum-Presidential, Unitary, Republican.                  The United States of America

Code:   a          b          c          d

a)          i          ii          iii         iv

b)          ii          iii         iv         i

c)          iii          ii          i           iv

d)          ii          iv         i           iii

Ans      D