UPSC NCRET HISTORY NOTES: TOPIC WISE SOLVED MCQ’s

UPSC HISTORY INDIA: State of the Economy

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Today’s Topic: State of the Economy

Q1. Consider the following statement.

  1. In the seventeenth century tobacco and maize were introduced into India.
  2. Tanks and reservoirs were the major sources of irrigation in the Deccan and south India during Mughal period.

Which of the statement given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1              b) Only 2              c) Both 1 and 2              d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    During the Mughal period, in central India, the Deccan and the south, tanks and reservoirs were the major sources or irrigation. In the northern plains, a number of canals were cut from rivers.

In the seventeenth century same exotic crops like tobacco and maize were introduced into India from the New world. Tabacco cultivation began and the western coast in the early seventeenth century, but within fifty years had spread to all parts of the Mughal empire.

Hence, the correct answer is option (c).

Q2. With reference to the peasants during the Mughal period, Consider the following statement.

  1. The Pahikashta was a peasant proprietor whose land holding and residential house were situated in the same village.
  2. The Khudkashta was a peasant who owned cultivated land and its location was in a different village from his residence.

Which of the statement given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1              b) Only 2              c) Both 1 and 2              d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     D

Explanation:    During Mughal period peasants were of three types, the Khudkashta, the Pahikashta and the Muqarairaiya. The Khudkasta was a peasant proprietor where land holding and residential house were situated in the same village. The Pahikashta also owned the land he cultivated but it was located in a different village from his residence. The Muqarariraiya was differed from the other two categories of peasants in that he leased his spare land to teants, known as Muzarian.

Hence, the correct answer is option (d).

Q3. With reference to the Mughal empire, Consider the following statement.

  1. The Khalisa lands were those land whose revenue went directly to the central treasury.
  2. The Jagir lands were assigned to mansabdars in lieu of cash salaries.

Which of the statement given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1              b) Only 2              c) Both 1 and 2              d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    All cultivable land in the Mughal empire was divided into two categories, the khalisa lands and the jagirs lands. Khalisa lands were those where land revenue went directly to the central treasury, while the jagir lands were those assigned to mansabdars in lieu of cash salaries. The mansabdars were entitled only to collect the state share of revenue and were not the owners of the jagirs. Hence, the correct answer is option (c).

Q4. With reference to the village community during Mughal rule, consider the following statements.

  1. There was the prevalence of joint ownership of village land.
  2. Each peasant was taxed individually
  3. Villagers had a common financial pool.

Which of the statement given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1              b) Only 2              c) Both 1 and 2              d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    A notable feature of village community during Mughal period was the prevalence of individual peasant farming. There is no evidence of joint ownership of village land. Each peasant was taxed individually according to the size of his holding and crop. The village community along with village acted as a group an a number of matters of mutal interest. They had a common financial pool from which they shared village expenses.

Hence, the correct answer is option (c).

Q5. Consider the following statement.

  1. Zamindars in the Mughal period assisted the state in the collection of land revenue
  2. Zamindars did not maintain any combat force during Mughal period.

Which of the statement given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1              b) Only 2              c) Both 1 and 2              d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    Zamindars in the Mughal period included various hereditary group that assisted the state in the collection of land revenue. In return for their service. They were entitled to various perquisites such as share in the agricultural produce and tax free lands. The zamindars were a well armed class, ready to resist Mughal authority in their areas. The Ain-i-Akbari states that the troops of the Zamindars exceeded fourty four lakhs.

Hence, the correct answer is option (a).

Q6. Consider the following statement.

  1. The peasantry in Mughal times was armed.
  2. The Mughals adopted a policy of settling Afghans in areas of insurgence.

Which of the statement given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1              b) Only 2              c) Both 1 and 2              d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    The peasantry in Mughal times was armed. Mannucci has described how the villagers of the Mathura region defended themselves against Mughal revenue agents in Akbar’s time. Peter Mundy in 1632 saw in the present day Khanpur district “labourers with their guns swords and bucklers lying by them whilst they ploughed the ground…. ”

The Mughals adopted a policy of setting Afghans in areas of insurgence. Jahangir dispatched them all over the country. In Shah Jahan’s reign nine thousand Afghans were brought to populate the newly founded city of Shahjahanpur. Similarily, Afridi Afghans were invited by Aurangzeb to settle in Muzaffarnagar and tame the Rajputs in the region.

Hence, the correct answer is option (c).

Q7. Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. The most important items of interregional trade during sixteenth centuries were foodstuffs and texdes.
  2. Bills of exchange promising payment at a discount after a period were called Hundis.

a) Only 1              b) Only 2              c) Both 1 and 2              d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    During the Mughal period, the most important items of inter-regional trade were foodstuffs and textiles. Waterways were the preferred mode of transport, through trade along land routes was also substantial.

Hudis were bills of exchange promising payment at a discount after a period. There were two types of Hundis. Darshini and Miti.

Hence, the correct answer is option (c).

Q8. With reference to trading community in India during Mughal period, consider the following statements:

  1. Jains and Bohra Muslims were principal merchants in Rajasthan.
  2. Oswals, Maheswaris and Agarwals were principal merchants in Gujarat.

Which of the statement given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1              b) Only 2              c) Both 1 and 2              d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     D

Explanation:    The trading community in India during Mughal period was large and varied. Among the principal merchants were Jains and Bohra Muslims in Gujarat, Oswals Maheshwaris and Agarwals in Rajasthan; Chettis on the Coromandel coast, and Muslim merchants in Malabar. The overland trade to central Asia was mainly controlled by Multanis and Afghans. Banjaras specialised in the transportation of bulk goods.

Hence, the correct answer is option (d).

Q9. Which one of the following statements is correct?

a) Ab-i-rawan was the cotton muslim produced in Decca.

b) Cotton yarn was produced in Broach and Kasimbazar.

c) Patolar was the finished silks produced in Gujarat.

d) All of the above

Ans:     D

Explanation:    During the Mughal Period. Decca the provinnal capital of Bengal till the early eighteenth century, produced very five cotton muslin called ab-i-rawan (flowing water)  cotton yarn was produced in large quantities in Broach, Balasore and Kasimbazar. Bengal was a major exporter of silk. Gujarat, too was renowned for its finished silks, especially patolar. Keshmir, then as now was famous for its shawls.

Hence, the correct answer is option (d).

Q10. Which of the following items were imported during the Mughal period?

  1. Tin              2. Lead              3. Horses              4. Iron

a) Only 1,2 and 3              b) Only 1,2 and 4              c) Only 2 and 3              d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     A

Explanation:    During Mughal period, India’s import requirements were few, and mainly restricted to certain metals like tin, lead and copper and horses. India was self -sufficient in iron which was mainly produced in Bengal. Allahabad, Agra, Berar, Gujarat and Delhi. The skills of the India metalsmiths were renowned in far flund areas of the world.

Hence, the correct answer is option (a).

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