UPSC NCERT ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT NOTES: TOPIC WISE SOLVED MCQ’s

 

UPSC ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT :Pollution and Environmental Change

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Today’s Topic:Pollution and Environment Change

Q1. Which of the following human activities cause soil pollution?

  1. Waste dumps
  2. Municipal wastes
  3. Agrochemicals
  4. Urbanisation

a) Only 1 and 2

b) Only 2 and 3

c) Only 3 and 4

d) Only 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Soil pollution usually results from different human activities, like waste dumping, use of agrochemicals, mining operations and urbanisation.

Q2. Consider the following statements:

  1. Radioactive materials thrive in the soil for long periods because they have a long half-life.
  2. Excess inorganic fertilisers and biocide residues contaminate the soil.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Radioactive wastes from nuclear testing laboratories and nuclear explosion contaminate the soil. Radioactive materials thrive in the soil for long periods because they usually have a long half life.

Pesticides and weedicides are being increasingly applied to control pests and weeds in agricultural systems. Excess inorganic fertilisers and biocide residues are contaminating the soil as well as surface and groundwater resources.

Q3. Consider the following statements:

  1. Sewage sludge and industrial solid wastes are used as landfills.
  2. Fly-ash bricks are used for building constructions.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Control measures for soil pollution and degradation involve safer land use, planned urbanisation, controlled developmental activities, safe disposal and management of solid wastes from industries and human habitations. Sewage sludge and industrial solid wastes are used as landfills. Toxic chemicals and hazardous metal-containing wastes are used as feeding material for road construction. Fly-ash bricks are being used for building constructions.

Q4. Consider the following statements:

  1. The sound level is he logarithm of ratio of the ambient intensity to the reference intensity.
  2. When the ambient sound intensity is equal to the reference intensity. The sound or noise level is 0 (zero) dB.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    The intensity of a sound wave is the average rate per unit area at which energy is transferred by the wave onto the surface. The sound level of the logarithm of ratio of the ambient intensity to the reference intensity. The unit of sound level is decibel (dB). When the ambient sound intensity is equal to the reference intensity, the sound or noise level is 0 (zero) dB.)

Q5. With reference to the permissible ambient noise levels, match the following:

Zone                   Day (6.00 – 21.00 hr)

A.Industry                         1. 55 dB

B. Commercial                   2. 65 dB

C. Residential                   3. 75 dB

D. Silent zone                   4. 50 dB

Code:

A         B          C          D

a) 3         2          1          4

b) 1         2          3          4

c) 2         1          3          4

d) 4         3          1          2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    The Central pollution Control Board has recommended zone-wise ambient noise levels which is given is:

Zone                Day (6.00 – 21.00 hr)

Industry           75 dB

Commercial     65 dB

Residential       55 dB

Silent zone       50 dB

Q6. Consider the following statements:

  1. Soundproof insulating jackets of filters are used to reduce noise from machines.
  2. Forests and dense hedge of plants act as noise barrier.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Soundproof insulating jackets or filters are used to reduce noise from machines. Industrial workers and runway traffic control personnel may use earmuffs to protect themselves from unwanted noise exposure. A ‘Silent zone’ around 100 meters of hospitals or schools can give comfort to ailing patients or help students to concentrate in studies. Forests and dense hedge of plants

can effectively act as noise barrier.

Q7. What is correct chronological order of the enactment of following acts?

  1. The Environment Protection Act
  2. The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act
  3. The Air Prevention and Control of pollution Act
  4. The Insecticide Act

a) 4, 2, 1, 3

b) 1, 2, 3, 4

c) 4, 2, 3, 1

d) 2, 4, 2, 1

Ans:     C

Act                                                                             Year

The Insecticide Act                                                            1968

The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act           1974

The Air prevention and Control of Pollution Act                1981

The Environment Protection Act                                       1986

Q8.Which of the following are greenhouse gases?

  1. CO2
  2.  CH4
  3.  O2
  4. N2O

a) Only 1, 2 and 3

b) Only 1, 2 and 4

c) Only 3 and 4

d) Only 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     B

Explanation:    CO2, Ch4, N2O and CFCs are called greenhouse gases. CO2 is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. The increased amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are affecting the global climate and this phenomenon is now recognized as Global climate change.

Q9. Which of the following are the sources of methane?

  1.  Freshwater wetlands
  2.  Enteric fermentation in cattle
  3. Flooded rice fields
  4.  Biomass burning

a) Only 1, 2 and 3

b) Only 1, 2 and 4

c) Only 3 and 4

d) Only 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Methane is largely a product of incomplete decomposition and is produced by a group of bacteria called methanogens, under anaerobic conditions. The major sources of methane include freshwater wetlands, enteric fermentation in cattle, and flooded rice fields. Biomass burning also produce methane.

Q10. Which of the following are the major sources of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)?

  1. Baking air conditioners.
  2.  Refrigeration units.
  3. Evaporation of industrial solvents.
  4.  Production of plastic foams.

a) Only 1, 2 and 3

b) Only 1, 2 and 4

c) Only 3 and 4

d) Only 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are non-toxic and non flammable, highly stable and synthetic gaseous compounds of barbon and halogens. Major sources of CFCs are baking air conditioners, refrigeration units and evaporation of industrial solvents, and production of plastic foams and propellants in aerosol spray cans.

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