UPSC NCERT ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT NOTES: TOPIC WISE SOLVED MCQ’s

 

UPSC ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT :

Natural Resources Notes Part 1

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Today’s Topic:Natural Resources

Q1. Consider the following statements:

  1. Inexhaustible resources are available in unlimited quantities on the earth.
  2. Solar energy, wind power and tide power are inexhaustible resources.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Inexhaustible resources are available in unlimited quantities on the earth. While some inexhaustible resources remain virtually unaffected by human impact, many others may show some changes in their quality, though their quantity may remain unchanged. Resources like solar energy, wind power, tide power, rainfall, and even atomic energy, cannot be exhausted significantly at global level due to human activities.

Q2. Consider the following statements:

  1. Most of the biotic resource are renewable.
  2. Biological species are considered as renewable.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     a) most of the biotic resouces are renewable. The growth and reproduction of such resources can be successful managed so that these resources are continuously regenerated. Biological species, which have evolved in nature during the course of millions of years, are considered non-renewable.

Q3. Which of the following ecosystems give renewable products?

  1. Forests
  2. Rougelands
  3. Wildlife
  4. Agricultural systems
  5. Marine and freshwater systems.

a) Only 1, 2 and 3

b) Only 1, 2 and 4

c) Only 3 and 5

d) Only 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Ans:     D

Some of the ecosystems and their important renewable products are:

(i) Forests, which yield timber and other plant products.

(ii) Rouge lands, which sustain grazing animals for milk, meat and wool production.

(iii) Wildlife, which maintain food chain.

(iv) Agricultural systems, which yield food and fiber, and

(v) Marine and freshwater systems, which yield various foods from plants and animals.

Q4. Which of the following abiotic resources are non-renewable?

  1. Coal
  2. Petroleum
  3. Gas
  4. Metals

a) Only 1 and 2

b) Only 3 and 4

c) Only 1, 3 and 4

d) Only 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     D

Many a biotic resources are non-renewable. For instance, fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and gas, and metals once extracted, cannot be regenerated at the place of extraction. After unlimited extraction and use, the fuels will centrainly get exhausted.

Q5. Consider the following statements:

  1. The yield of all biotic products in terrestrial ecosystems depends on soil fertility.
  2. Soil erosion causes a significant loss of soil fertility.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    In terrestrial ecosystems, the yield of all biotic products depends on soil fertility. It takes decades, or even centuries for the development of soil horizons having different physiochemical properties. Movement of water and air removes top soil from the land by the process of erosion. Erosion causes a significant loss of soil fertility by transporting organic matter and nutrients that are essential part of the soil

Q6. Which of the following practices minimise erosion and reduce nutrient depletion of agricultural soils?

  1. Conservation tillage
  2. Organic farming
  3. Crop rotation
  4. Contour ploughing

a) Only 1, 2 and 3

b) Only 1, 2 and 4

c) Only 3 and 4

d) Only 1, 2, 3, and 4

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Several soil and crop management practices can minimise erosion and reduce nutrient depletion of agricultural soils. There include practices like conservation tillage, organic farming, corporation (especially cereal with legumes), contour plugging and strip-cropping terraces. Reduced tillage and no-tillage are two kinds of conservation tillage.

Q7. Consider the following statements:

  1. Over a period of time the agricultural soil inevitably loses its fertility.
  2. The restoration of soil fertility to its original level is a fast process.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    When natural vegetation is removed to develop agricultural systems, as has happened in most parts of India, and indeed, in the world, not only the nutrients stored in vegetation are removed, the organic matter and the nutrients accumulated in the soil are lost. Thus, over a period of time the agricultural soil inevitably loses its fertility.

With increasing addition of detritus, the soil organic matter, nutrient and moisture levels improve. The restoration of soil fertility to its original level is a slow (not fast) process.

Q8. Consider the following statements:

  1. Soil stabilization needs seeding of bare ground with plants that can survive harsh conditions.
  2. Application of biofertilizers is useful in enhancing soil fertility.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Soil stabilisation will need seeding of bare ground with plants that can survive harsh conditions, e.g., drought-resistant grasses. Such plants eventually establish vegetation cover on the soil, preventing further erosion. The restoration of soil fertility to its original level is a slow process. Soil fertility is enhanced by the application of biofertilizers. Various organic farming measures, which provide increased organic input to soil, have long-term beneficial effects on soil fertility.

Q9. Which one of the following statements is not correct?

a) About three-fourths of the earth surface is occupied by oceans.

b) 97.5 percent of the earth’s water is saline.

c) Most of the fresh water occurs as groundwater.

d) All of the above.

Ans:     C

Explanation:    About three-fourth of the earth’s surface is occupied by oceans, which contain about 97.5 percent of the earth’s water in strongly saline condition. The rest 2.5 percent is fresh water, and all of this is not available for direct human use. Most of the fresh water is frozen as polar or glacial ice (1.97 percent). Remaining fresh water occurs as groundwater (0.5 percent) and water in lakes and rivers (0.02 percent).

Q10. Consider the following statements:

  1. 2.5 percent of the earth’s water is fresh water.
  2. Fresh water is geographically evenly distributed on the earth’s surface.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    About three-fourth of the earth’s surface is occupied by oceans, which contain about 97.5 percent of the earth’s water is strong in saline condition. The rest 2.5 percent is fresh water, and all of this is not available for direct human use. The distribution of fresh water is geographically uneven, varying greatly from country to country and even with in a country from one region to another.

 

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