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Today’s topic:

Section 1:

  1. Nemo’s Genes-Reef Fish Genome
  2. Highest Priority Critically Important Antimicrobials
  3. Van Dhan Initiatives and Vandhan Vikas Kendras

Section 2:

  1. Puri
  2. Gibson desert
  3. National Income
  4. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Economic Sectors


1.Nemo’s Genes – Reef Fish Genome

Nemo’s genes have been deciphered and made publicly available. It is can be used by researchers to investigate on fish ecology and evolution.

Nemo’s genes have 24 chromosomes.

Orange clownfish is a mainstay for the marine biology research. It is used as a model species to study the social organisation, sex change, habitat selection and effects of climate change and ocean acidification on fish.

Genome sequencing is performed by reading many short stretches of a genome followed by deciphering and re-assembling these small species. SMRT sequencing produces relatively long read of DNA.

Teams are assessing the completeness of the orange clownfish genome assembly by comparing it to high-quality genome assemblies of 26 other fish species. Teams are sequencing genome of other reef fish species to answer question relating to genome structure, evolution and response to climate change.

2. Highest Priority Critically Important Antimicrobial

WHO has classified certain antimicrobial classes for human medicine in a list called WHO list of Critically Important Antimicrobials for human medicine (CIA List).

The CIA list is intended for public health and animal health authorities, private practitioners and veterinarians and other stakeholders.

It is intended as reference to formulate and prioritise risk assessment and risk management strategies for containing antimicrobial in resistance due to non-human antimicrobial use.

3. Van Dhan Initiative and Van Dhan Vikas Kendra

Van Dhan Scheme aim at economic development of the tribals involved in Minor Food Produces by optimising the use of natural resources and providing substantial livelihood.

Self Help Groups are created by the tribal gathers and are called Van Dhan Vikas Samuh. They undertake value addition of MFPs with the use of equipments like cutting tools, decorticators, packaging tools etc… based on MFPs available in the areas.

The facilities provided to the Samuh are:

  • Required building or infrastructural support
  • Equipments
  • Working capital assistance through financial institutions
  • Equipped training

A cluster of 10 Samuhs form a Van Dhan Vikas Kendra.

The initiative aims to increase the share of the tribals in the value chain of Non-Timber Forest Produce. This initiative is implemented by Ministry of Tribal Affairs which is the nodal department at the Centre. TRIFED is the nodal agency at the national level and the State nodal agencies operate at the state level.


1. Puri

Puri is the temple town, a coastal district in Odisha. It is known for its spiritual importance and the famous Rath Yatra. The largest briny water lake called the Chilika Lake is located here.

2. Gibson Dessert

The desert is located in central east rangeland of Western Australia. It is the 4th largest dessert in Australia and most area os the desert is considered as remote.

3. National Income

It refers to the money value of the goods and service produced by a country in a financial year. It is the final outcome of the economic activities valued in terms of money.

4. Economic Sectors

  • Primary Sector – It includes the industries that produce or extract raw materials.

For Example – Farmer

  • Secondary Sector – It includes the manufacturing industries that manufacture goods by using the raw materials.

For Example – Carpenter

  • Tertiary Sector – It includes industries that provide service.

For Example Banks