Today’s Topic: Exam Important Current Affairs MCQ’s

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EveryDay Program List

Sunday- Indian and world Geography

Monday-General issues on Environmental Ecology, bio-diversity and Climate Change

Tuesday- General Science

Wednesday- Indian Polity and Governance

Thursday- History of India and Indian National Movement

Friday- Economic and Social Development

Saturday-Exam Important Current Affairs Topics

Today’s Topic: Exam Important Current Affairs Topics

Q1. Consider the following about VoLTE.

  1. VoLTE is a technology update to the LTE protocol used by mobile phone networks.
  2. VoLTE provides a more efficient use of spectrum than traditional voice and increases handset battery life.

Which of the above is/are correct?

a) 1 only           b) 2 only         c) Both 1 and 2         d) None

Ans:     C

Explanation:

VoLTE

VoLTE is a technology update to the LTE protocol used by mobile phone networks. Under LTE, the infrastructure of telecom players only allows transmission of data while voice calls are routed to their older 2G or 3G networks. This is why, under LTE, you cannot access your 4G data services while on a call. This leads to problems such as slow internet speeds and poor voice clarity.

VoLTE allows voice calls to be ‘packaged’ and carried through LTE networks. This would mean 4G data accessibility even during calls. VoLTE is an Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) specification which enables a variety of services to operate seamlessly on the network rather than having to switch to different applications for voice or video. In India, mobile phones and telecom operators have adapted to LTE networks, faster than to 3G and are preparing to launch VoLTE services. But not all players may be able to immediately implement this mainly due to costs and complexity in infrastructure.

If VoLTE becomes a reality, it could enable call quality that is much superior to the previous networks. Apart from high definition voice quality, it can also provide improved coverage. Your network would pick up 2G or 3G signals when VoLTE is unavailable, ensuring you are always connected with both voice and data. You may also be able to place video calls directly from your number which may render applications such as Skype or Viber redundant. Since VoLTE counts voice calls as data usage, your billing will be in terms of data consumption rather than minutes of usage.

Q2.Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform (SDKP) is an initiative of

a) United Nations

b) International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

c) WWF (World Wildlife Fund)

d) Conservation International

Ans:     A

Explanation:

Sustainable Development Goals initiated by united nations as below given

GOAL : END POVERTY IN ALL ITS FORMS EVERYWHERE

a) Rapid growth (SDG 8) is the key weapon in any country’s arsenal for combating poverty. On the one hand, it creates well-paid jobs that empower households by giving them necessary purchasing power to access food, clothing, housing, education and health. On the other, it places ever-rising revenues in the hands of the Government to finance social spending. India has continued its programme of economic reforms to achieve sustained rapid growth. The reforms have included fiscal consolidation, inflation targeting, improved governance all around, accelerated infrastructure development (SDG 9), curbing of corruption (SDG 16), Aadhaar Act, Insolvency and Bankruptcy Act, Goods and Services Tax (GST), further liberalization of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), closure of sick Public Sector Units and much more. The result has been that, today, India is the fastest growing large economy in the world. It grew 7.9 per cent during fiscal year 2015-16 and 7.1 per cent during 2016-17. Growth has brought increased volume of revenues, which have permitted the Government to sustain a high-level of social spending that directly targets poverty, as described immediately below.

b) An important strategy for achieving this goal is focused on generating meaningful employment by developing agricultural infrastructure, productive assets and entrepreneurship-based livelihood opportunities. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), which is sometimes described as the world’s largest cash transfer programme, has generated over 2 billion person-days’ of employment (SDG 8) during the last year. It has helped reduce extreme poverty as well as enhance the infrastructure and purchasing power in rural areas. The benefits have largely been reaped by women (SDG 5) and disadvantaged sections of society (SDG 10). Similarly, the Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Livelihoods Mission provides skilled employment to marginalized communities.

c) Further, two major programmes, the Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana and Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana, provide access to life and accident insurance for 130 million subscribers for nominal annual premiums. Additionally, initiatives like the Atal Pension Yojana and the National Social Assistance Programme provide pension to workers in the unorganized sector, widows and the differently abled.

d) Another crucial strategy for eliminating poverty is ensuring access to basic services. In the areaof education, there is a National Mission, which is focused on providing universal access to quality primary education. Moreover, the Right to Education Act has established an effective legal framework entitling all children (6-14 years) to free and compulsory education based on principles of equity and non-discrimination. Similarly, the National Health Mission and the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) initiatives strive to provide access to primary health care and nutrition for the population.

e) India is committed to ensuring housing for all by 2022. To enable the achievement of thisobjective, the Prime Minister’s Housing Scheme provides direct financial assistance to poor households.

f) For fulfilling the cooking fuel requirements of the population in an environmentally friendly manner, the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana, launched in 2016, aims to provide Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) to poor families with initial financial support for accessing a connection. The programme has enabled the provision of more than 20 million LPG connections since its launch a year ago.

g) Providing access to adequate and safe drinking water as well as sanitation is crucial. Under the National Rural Drinking Water Programme, more than 77% of the rural habitations have been fully covered with 40 litres of drinking water per capita on a daily basis. The objective of the Clean India Movement is to ensure an Open Defecation Free India by 2019. Over the last two years, more than 39 million household toilets have been constructed. Moreover, 193,000 villages and 531 cities have been successful in ending the practice of open defecation. The Movement also focuses on bringing about sustained behaviour change through the engagement of a range of stakeholders, including religious and political leaders.

GOAL : END HUNGER, ACHIEVE FOOD SECURITY AND IMPROVED NUTRITION AND PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

a) Programmes under the National Food Security Act cover more than 800 million people in the country. The Public Distribution System, for instance, is one of the largest food security initiatives in the world. In recognition of empirical evidence that women pay greater attention to household security, the Government has chosen to issue ration cards in the name of the senior most female member of the household. Other initiatives that contribute to this goal are the ICDS and the Mid-Day Meal Programme. The latter provides nutritious cooked meals to 100 million children in primary schools.

b) Governance reforms are being undertaken for improving the effectiveness of food security programmes. These include digitization of ration cards, leveraging Aadhaar for authenticated delivery of benefits and an online grievance redressal mechanism.

c) Further, the National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture in collaboration with other stakeholders is implementing climate change adaptation strategies for sustaining agricultural productivity. Since 2014, the land under organic farming has increased to 200,000 ha. Additionally, over 62 million Soil Health Cards, with crop-wise nutrient management advisories, have been issued.

d) Moreover, a comprehensive plan is being implemented for doubling farmers’ income by 2022. This includes expediting tenancy reforms, promoting crop diversification and expanding micro-irrigation (1.3 million ha covered during the last two years).

e) Another area in which considerable progress has been made is digitization of agricultural marketing. The electronic National Agricultural Marketing platform now covers 250 Mandis (agricultural markets) across the country. A revamped crop insurance programme, the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana, has also been launched.

GOAL : ENSURE HEALTHY LIVES AND PROMOTE WELLBEING FOR ALL AT ALL AGES

a) Beyond increasing access, several initiatives are also being taken for improving the quality of health services. These include the development of a composite index and an award for ensuring a hygienic environment in Government health facilities.

b) The National Health Policy, 2017, specifies targets for universalizing primary health care, reducing infant and under-5 mortality, preventing premature deaths due to non-communicable diseases as well as increasing Government expenditure on health.

c) To tackle the death of children due to vaccine-preventable diseases and the risk due to incomplete immunization, the Government is aiming to provide vaccination against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, tuberculosis, polio, measles and hepatitis to all unimmunized or partially immunized children by 2020.

d) As a step towards achieving universal health coverage, the Government of India has announced a health insurance cover to the tune of INR 100,000 (USD 1,563) for families below the poverty line.

GOAL: ACHIEVE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER ALL WOMEN AND GIRLS

a) Several important initiatives have been taken during the last few years for promoting gender equality. A flagship initiative is Beti Bachao Beti Padao (Save the Girl Child Educate the Girl Child), under which State Governments are implementing a range of measures suited to their local contexts to elevate the status of the girl child.

b) Additionally, a Maternity Benefit Programme has been launched for all pregnant and lactating mothers. Through conditional cash transfer, it protects women from wage loss during the first six months after childbirth.

c) For raising the levels of female labour force participation, a number of initiatives are being implemented including Stand-up India and MGNREGA. The Women Empowerment Campaign is another effort focused on enabling digital literacy and gainful employment opportunities.

d) Further, Women Empowerment Centers are being established for providing comprehensive services at the village-level.

GOAL: BUILD RESILIENT INFRASTRUCTURE, PROMOTE INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIALIZATION AND FOSTER INNOVATION

a) All forms of transportation — roads, railways, civil aviation and waterways — are being rapidly expanded. Road connectivity and electricity are being brought to all villages.

b) The objective of the Digital India initiative is to build a digitally empowered society by focusing on broadband highways, mobile connectivity and Internet as well as e-Governance. For example, the Bharat Broadband Network Ltd has provided high-speed connectivity to 18,434 local village councils, thus far. Till December 2016, there were 432 million internet users in the country.

c) Another priority area is manufacturing. The new Manufacturing Policy raises the output target from 16% of GDP to 25% by 2025. India is developing into a high-tech and global manufacturing hub because of the emphasis on ‘Make in India’ and a substantial increase in FDI inflows.

d) The Government has also introduced a number of policy measures for boosting employment-intensive manufacturing segments. For instance, the recently introduced Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana provides easy credit ranging from INR 50,000 to 1 million (USD 780 to 15,600) to small-scale business entrepreneurs. A major package announced for the textiles industry aims to create hundreds of thousands of jobs in this sector.

e) For promoting entrepreneurship and enhancing economic growth, the Government has launched the Start-up India programme. Innovation and entrepreneurship is also being encouraged through initiatives like the Atal Innovation Mission. Additionally, NITI Aayog has launched the India Innovation Index for ranking innovations in the country.

GOAL: CONSERVE AND SUSTAINABLY USE THE OCEANS, SEAS AND MARINE RESOURCES

a) Several strategies have been put in place for realizing the Blue Revolution in the country. These include strengthening marine research, developing an eco-friendly marine industrial and technology base as well as implementing the National Fisheries Action Plan.

b) Significant progress has been made with respect to preservation and management of the marine ecosystem. For instance, the Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System tracks the levels of marine pollution along the coastline. Additionally, the Online Oil Spill Advisory System enhances the effectiveness of the national response to marine oil spills. India is also implementing the revised National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan.

c) Further, the Sagarmala programme is focused on improving port connectivity, port-linked industrialization and coastal community development. Under this initiative, support is also provided for the development of deep sea fishing vessels and fish processing centers.

GOAL: REVITALIZE THE GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

a) A revitalized global partnership is crucial for the achievement of the SDGs. India is committed to taking measurable actions for implementing the SDG agenda. We also reaffirm the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. This is important because while efforts at raising resources domestically will help India move closer to the attainment of the SDGs, they are unlikely to result in sufficient revenues. Therefore, we reiterate that the developed countries have an essential obligation to provide financial assistance to the developing countries, especially for global public goods such as climate change mitigation and control of pandemics, so that they can fully achieve the SDGs. International cooperation is also essential for curbing illicit financial flows, defining aid unambiguously and establishing robust systems for monitoring commitments made by donor countries.

b) For increasing the domestic mobilization of resources, a path-breaking tax reform agenda is being finalized. This includes direct tax reforms as well as the GST, a uniform and simplified form of indirect taxation. An innovative tax like the Swachh Bharat Cess (Clean India Cess) has also been levied for mobilizing resources for the Clean India Campaign.

  1. c) Additionally, implementation of the budget responsibility legislation is ensuring predictable and sustainable budgeting as well as long-term debt sustainability.

d) Financing of sustainable sources of energy is being promoted to provide energy for all by 2022 through a massive 150 GW increase in energy from renewables. Enhanced international cooperation is also being fostered through the leadership of the International Solar Alliance.

e) Further, consistent policies have opened up the economy to FDI. This has resulted in $156 billion FDI flow during the last three fiscal years. The flow of $56 billion in the latest fiscal year has been larger than that in any other year.

f) The 14th Finance Commission award is being implemented to substantially enhance fiscal devolution to States (from 32% to 42% of the central pool of tax proceeds) and Local Governments. This is enabling a significant spurt in development interventions designed and implemented independently by sub-national Governments.

g) Enhancing development cooperation with neighbouring and other countries of the global South brings India’s innovation and expertise to the service of these countries. For instance, launching of the South Asia Satellite will lead to sharing of valuable data with neighbouring countries including Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Afghanistan.

Q3.Consider the following about Very High Resolution (VHR) Satellite Imagery.

  1. It offers sub-centimeter resolution.
  2. Any type of vehicles on road can be identified using VHR imagery.
  3. Structural changes of landscapes can be easily monitored with this imagery.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only                b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only                d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:    B

Explanation:

Very High Resolution (VHR) Satellite Imagery offers sub-meter resolution – one of the highest image qualities currently available from commercial remote sensing satellites.

iSi’s very highest resolution (VHR) earth observation satellites are a key asset in our remote sensing capabilities. The highly maneuverable low earth orbiting satellites are noted for its quality, versatility and accessibility.

Among the most common applications of VHR consists  strategic and tactical Intelligence, counter terrorism, counter drug trafficking, GIS mapping, change detection and various types of surveillance and monitoring, including maritime monitoring, border control and national infrastructure.

Sub-meter (VHR) resolution satellites offer users a smaller ground sampling distance (GSD) than other imaging satellites, making them more suitable for reliable natural or man-made, objects and landscapes observation, site monitoring, object identification and many other tasks requiring precision data.

Among its many advantages, VHR images enable the identification of specific models of vehicles, vessels and airplanes, as well as the monitoring of structural changes, natural disasters, industrial operations and livestock. This versatility makes EROS imagery a powerful resource for both civilian and military needs.

Q4. Consider the following statements. A person of Indian Origin (PIO) card holder

  1. Doesn’t need a visa to visit India.
  2. Doesn’t require a student or employment visa to acquire employment or academic opportunities inIndia.
  3. has voting rights equivalent to NRIs

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only           b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only           d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     A

Explanation:

PERSON OF INDIAN ORIGIN (PIO)

PERSON OF INDIAN ORIGIN (PIO) CARD A Person of Indian Origin (PIO) means a foreign citizen (except a national of Pakistan, Afghanistan Bangladesh, China, Iran, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Nepal) who at any time held an Indian passport.

Or who or either of their parents/ grandparents/ great grandparents was born and permanently resident in India as defined in Government of India Act, 1935 and other territories that became part of India thereafter provided neither was at any time a citizen of any of the aforesaid countries (as referred above); Or Who is a spouse of a citizen of India or a PIO

Q5. Natura 2000 is

a) The largest coordinated network of protected areas in the world

b) A GHG emission standard of European Union (EU) recently admitted by the Board of Emissions in UNEP

c) A list of most vulnerable species as compiled by the ICUN

d) A non-profit organization that helps conserves small islands in LDCs

Ans: A

Explanation:

Natural 2000

Natural 2000 is a European (EU 28) ecological network of terrestrial, coastal and marine protected areas aiming to protect the most valuable and threatened habitats and species across Europe. The Natura 2000 network is underpinned by two European Directives: the Birds Directive 1 and the Habitats Directive 2 which are collectively known as the Nature Directives. Under the Habitats Directive, Member States propose sites as Sites of Community Importance (SCI). Once the SCIs are accepted by the Commission, Member States must then designate them as legally protected Special Areas of Conservation (SACs). Under the Birds Directive, however, Member States can directly designate Special Protection Areas (SPAs) under their jurisdiction without having to be approved by the Commission. Collectively the sites designated under both Directives make up the Natura 2000 network.

Q6. MoSAic Observatory is concerned with an improved understanding of the region of

a) Equatorial Rainforests

b) Lower Earth orbits

c) Arctic Region

d) Tropical cyclones

Ans: C

Explanation:

Arctic Climate (MOSAiC)

The Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) will be the first year-round expedition into the central Arctic exploring the Arctic climate system. The project with a total budget exceeding € 60 Million has been designed by an international consortium of leading polar research institutions, under the umbrella of the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) and led by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and the University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES).

The backbone of MOSAiC will be the year round operation of research icebreaker RV Polarstern, drifting with the sea ice across the central Arctic over the winter 2019-2020. In addition, a distributed regional network of observational sites will be set up on the sea ice in an area of up to ~50km distance from RV Polarstern. The ship and the surrounding network will drift with the natural ice drift across the polar cap towards the Atlantic, while the sea ice thickens during winter.

The results of MOSAiC will contribute to enhance understanding of the regional and global consequences of Arctic climate change and sea-ice loss and improve weather and climate predictions. The dramatic changes in the Arctic climate system and the fast retreat of Arctic sea ice are strongly affecting global climate and the inability of modern climate models to reproduce Arctic climate change is one of the most pressing problems in understanding and predicting global climate change. As a result, the urgency of year-round observations of key climate processes in the central Arctic has been highlighted by all major research initiatives including the IPCC.

Q7. Access and Benefit-sharing (ABS) is a key idea in which of the following environmental conventions?

a) Convention on Biological Diversity

b) CITES Convention

c) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC)

d) Washington Convention, 2001

Ans: A

Explanation:

Access and Benefit-sharing (ABS)

Access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from their utilization is one of the three objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. At the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in Nagoya, Japan, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization was adopted. This historic agreement creates a framework that balances access to genetic resources, on the basis of prior informed consent and mutually agreed terms, with the fair and equitable sharing of benefits, thereby contributing to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. The use of genetic resources can also be associated with the traditional knowledge of indigenous and local communities. Therefore, the Nagoya Protocol also includes provisions regulating access and benefit sharing related to such knowledge. The Protocol is expected to enter into force in 2014, 90 days after the date of deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification.

The Nagoya Protocol will create greater legal certainty and transparency for both providers and users of genetic resources by:

  1. Establishing more predictable conditions for access to genetic resources; and
  2. Helping to ensure benefit-sharing when genetic resources leave the Party providing the genetic resources.

To this end, the Protocol includes obligations related to access to genetic resources, benefit-sharing and compliance with domestic legislation or regulatory requirements on access and benefit-sharing.
The Protocol also establishes an Access and Benefit-sharing Clearing-House as a platform for exchanging information and facilitating implementation of the Protocol. Countries will use the Clearing-House to provide information on their legal measures on access and benefit-sharing and their national focal points and competent national authorities, among other things. This will enhance the transparency and legal certainty of

Access and benefit-sharing.

he entry into force of the Nagoya Protocol will therefore have implications for the business community in relation to the use of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge. There are a number of resources available to help companies understand the Protocol, their responsibilities under it, and the benefits that will accrue once it is implemented.

Q8. With reference to Asian Infrastructure and Investment Bank (AIIB), consider the following statements.

  1. It offers sovereign and non-sovereign financing for sustainable projects in energy, telecommunications and rural infrastructure.
  2. It may participated in the underwriting of securities issued by any entity or enterprise for purpose consistent with its purpose.

Which of the above is/are correct?

a) 1 only        b) 2 only         c) Both 1 and 2         d) None

Ans: C

Explanation:

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)

The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is a multilateral development bank that aims to support the building of infrastructure in the Asia-Pacific region. The bank currently has 64 member states while another 22 are prospective members for a total of 86 approved members and was proposed as an initiative by the government of China. The initiative gained support from 37 regional and 20 non-regional Prospective Founding Members (PFM), all of which have signed the Articles of Agreement that form the legal basis for the bank. The bank started operation after the agreement entered into force on 25 December 2015, after ratifications were received from 10 member states holding a total number of 50% of the initial subscriptions of the Authorized Capital Stock. Major economies that are not members include Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, and the United States.

The United Nations has addressed the launch of AIIB as having potential for “scaling up financing for sustainable development.  for the concern of global economic governance.. The capital of the bank is $100 billion, equivalent to ​23 of the capital of the Asian Development Bank and about half that of the World Bank..

Q9. NABSKILL is a digital interface to promote Skill INDIA. It is an initiative by

a) Reserve Bank of India

b) National Skill Development Corporation of India

c) National Agricultural Bank for Rural Development d) Labour Bureau

d) None of the above

Ans: C

Explanation:

NABSKILL

NABSKILL is a digital interface initiative by NABARD to capture the details of all stakeholders (Training Seeker, Training Provider, Placement Agencies and NABARD) involved in skill development initiatives of NABARD.

The eligible training provider can check for their eligibility criteria under “Guidelines” in home page and upon successful registration the training provider can apply online for seeking grant support from NABARD.

The portal captures the details of training related data viz., trainee’s profiles, training programme details, post training settlement rate etc.

The registered placement agencies can view the details of successful trainees (Name, Type of training obtained, Details of Training Institute) who have undergone skill training supported by NABARD. The placement agencies can approach the training providers for further information on placement, etc.

Q10.The main roles and functions of the National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board (NAEB) include

  1. Financing and overseeing the compensatory afforestation work
  2. Rehabilitating and resettling communities displaced by deforestation for developmental works
  3. Sponsor research and extension of research findings to disseminate new technologies for the regeneration and development of degraded forest.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only         b) 3 only         c) 1 and 3 only        d) 2 and 3 only

Ans: B

Explanation:

National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board (NAEB),

The National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board (NAEB), set up in August 1992,is responsible for promoting afforestation,tree planting, ecological restoration and eco-development activities in the country, with special attention to the degraded forest areas and lands adjoining the forest areas, national parks, sanctuaries and other protected areas as well as the ecologically fragile areas like the Western Himalayas, Aravallis, Western Ghats, etc. The detailed role and functions of the NAEB are given below.

  1. Evolve mechanisms for ecological restoration of degraded forest areas and adjoining lands through systematic planning and implementation, in a cost effective manner;
  2. Restore through natural regeneration or appropriate intervention the forest cover in the country for ecological security and to meet the fuel wood, fodder and other needs of the rural communities;
  3. Restore fuel wood, fodder, timber and other forest produce on the degraded forest and adjoining lands in order to meet the demands for these items;
  4. Sponsor research and extension of research findings to disseminate new and proper technologies for the regeneration and development of degraded forest areas and adjoining lands;
  5. Create general awareness and help foster people’s movement for promoting afforestation and eco-development with the assistance of voluntary agencies, non-government organizations, Panchayati Raj institutions and others and promote participatory and sustainable management of degraded forest areas and adjoining lands;
  6. Coordinate and monitor the Action Plans for afforestation, tree planting, ecological restoration and eco-development; and
  7. Undertake all other measures necessary for promoting afforestation, tree planting, ecological restoration and eco-development activities in the country.

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