Today’s Topic: Exam Important Current Affairs MCQ’s-12

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EveryDay Program List

Sunday- Indian and world Geography

Monday-General issues on Environmental Ecology, bio-diversity and Climate Change

Tuesday- General Science

Wednesday- Indian Polity and Governance

Thursday- History of India and Indian National Movement

Friday- Economic and Social Development

Saturday-Exam Important Current Affairs Topics

Today’s Topic: Exam Important Current Affairs Topics-12

 

Q1. Nuclear Command Authority (India)

Qts.Which one among the following is responsible for the command, control and operational decisions of nuclear weapons in India?

a) Nuclear Commission of India

b) Nuclear Command Authority

c) The Ministry of Defence

d) The Cabinet Committee on Security

Ans: b

Explanation: Nuclear command and control (NC2) is the command and control of nuclear weapons, that is the “activities, processes, and procedures performed by appropriate military commanders and support personnel that, through the chain of command, allow for senior-level decisions on nuclear weapons employment.”

India’s first Nuclear test was conducted on 18 May 1974 with the code name Smiling Buddha. Since then India has conducted another series of tests at the Pokhran test range in the state of Rajasthan in 1998, which included a thermonuclear test, code named Operation Shakti. India has an extensive civil and military nuclear program, which includes at least 10 nuclear reactors, uranium mining and milling sites, heavy water production facilities, a uranium enrichment plant, fuel fabrication facilities, and extensive nuclear research capabilities.

Though India has not made any official statements about the size of its nuclear arsenal, different country estimates indicate that India has anywhere between 150 and 300 nuclear weapons.[2

On January 4, 2003, the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) constituted the Political Council and the Executive Council of the NCA. The Executive Council gives its opinion to the Political Council, which authorises a nuclear attack when deemed necessary. While the Executive Council is chaired by the National Security Advisor (NSA), the Political Council is chaired by the Prime Minister. This mechanism was implemented to ensure that Indian nukes remain firmly in civilian control and that there exists a sophisticated Command and Control (C2) mechanism to prevent their accidental or unauthorised use.

Q2. Which among the following countries in not a founder member of Shanghai Cooperation Organization ?

a) Kazakhstan

b) Kyrgyzstan

c) Tajikistan

d) Afghanistan

Ans:d)

Explanation:

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai (China) by the Republic of Kazakhstan, the People’s Republic of China, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan, and the Republic of Uzbekistan. It was preceded by the Shanghai Five mechanism.

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter was signed during the St.Petersburg SCO Heads of State meeting in June 2002, and entered into force on 19 September 2003. This is the fundamental statutory document which outlines the organisation’s goals and principles, as well as its structure and core activities.

The historical meeting of the Heads of State Council of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation was held on 8-9 June 2017 in Astana. On the meeting the status of a full member of the Organization was granted to the Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

The SCO’s main goals are as follows: strengthening mutual trust and neighbourliness among the member states; promoting their effective cooperation in politics, trade, the economy, research, technology and culture, as well as in education, energy, transport, tourism, environmental protection, and other areas; making joint efforts to maintain and ensure peace, security and stability in the region; and moving towards the establishment of a democratic, fair and rational new international political and economic order.

Proceeding from the Shanghai Spirit, the SCO pursues its internal policy based on the principles of mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality, mutual consultations, respect for cultural diversity, and a desire for common development, while its external policy is conducted in accordance with the principles of non-alignment, non-targeting any third country, and openness.

The Heads of State Council (HSC) is the supreme decision-making body in the SCO. It meets once a year and adopts decisions and guidelines on all important matters of the organisation. The SCO Heads of Government Council (HGC) meets once a year to discuss the organisation’s multilateral cooperation strategy and priority areas, to resolve current important economic and other cooperation issues, and also to approve the organisation’s annual budget. The SCO’s official languages are Russian and Chinese.

In addition to HSC and HGC meetings, there is also a mechanism of meetings at the level of heads of parliament; secretaries of Security Councils; ministers of foreign affairs, defence, emergency relief, economy, transport, culture, education, and healthcare; heads of law enforcement agencies and supreme and arbitration courts; and prosecutors general. The Council of National Coordinators of SCO Member States (CNC) acts as the SCO coordination mechanism.

The organisation has two permanent bodies — the SCO Secretariat based in Beijing and the Executive Committee of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) based in Tashkent. The SCO Secretary-General and the Director of the Executive Committee of the SCO RATS are appointed by the Council of Heads of State for a term of three years. Rashid Alimov (Tajikistan) and Yevgeny Sysoyev (Russia) have held these positions, respectively, since 1 January 2016.

Thus, currently:

  • The SCO comprises eight member states, namely the Republic of India, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the People’s Republic of China, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan, and the Republic of Uzbekistan;
  • The SCO counts four observer states, namely the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, the Republic of Belarus, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Mongolia;
  • The SCO has six dialogue partners, namely the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Republic of Armenia, the Kingdom of Cambodia, the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, the Republic of Turkey, and the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.

Q3. The government has launched the Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme 2017-18 – Series – III. Consider the following about it.

  1. These bonds will be issued by the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) on behalf of the Government of India.
  2. Sale of These bonds will be both resident and nonresident Indian (NRI) persons and entities.
  3. There is no minimum or maximum permissible investment limit in the new revised scheme
  4. These bonds could be used as collateral for loans.

Select the correct answer using the codes below

a) 2,3 and 4 only      b) 4 only

c) 1 and 2 only         d) 1,2 and 3 only

Ans:     B

Explanation:

Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme 2017-18 – Series – III

The Bonds will be sold through banks, Stock Holding Corporation of India Limited (SHCIL), designated post offices and recognised stock exchanges viz., National Stock Exchange of India Limited and Bombay Stock Exchange. The features of the Bond are given below:

Sl. No. Item Details
1 Product name Sovereign Gold Bond 2017-18 – Series-III
2 Issuance To be issued by Reserve Bank India on behalf of the Government of India.
3 Eligibility The Bonds will be restricted for sale to resident Indian entities including individuals, HUFs, Trusts, Universities and Charitable Institutions.
4 Denomination The Bonds will be denominated in multiples of gram(s) of gold with a basic unit of 1 gram.
5 Tenor The tenor of the Bond will be for a period of 8 years with exit option from 5th year to be exercised on the interest payment dates.
6 Minimum size Minimum permissible investment will be 1 gram of gold.
7 Maximum limit The maximum limit of subscribed shall be 4 KG for individual, 4 Kg for HUF and 20 Kg for trusts and similar entities per fiscal (April-March) notified by the Government from time to time.  A self-declaration to this effect will be obtained.  The annual ceiling will include bonds subscribed under different tranches during initial issuance by Government and those purchase from the Secondary Market.
8 Joint holder In case of joint holding, the investment limit of 4 KG will be applied to the first applicant only.
9 Issue price Price of Bond will be fixed in Indian Rupees on the basis of simple average of closing price of gold of 999 purity published by the India Bullion and Jewellers Association Limited for the last 3 business days of the week preceding the subscription period. The issue price of the Gold Bonds will be ` 50 per gram less for those who subscribe online and pay through digital mode.
10 Payment option Payment for the Bonds will be through cash payment (upto a maximum of ` 20,000) or demand draft or cheque or electronic banking.
11 Issuance form The Gold Bonds will be issued as Government of India Stocks under GS Act, 2006. The investors will be issued a Holding Certificate for the same. The Bonds are eligible for conversion into demat form.
12 Redemption price The redemption price will be in Indian Rupees based on simple average of closing price of gold of 999 purity of previous 3 business days published by IBJA.
13 Sales channel Bonds will be sold through banks, Stock Holding Corporation of India Limited (SHCIL), designated post offices as may be notified and recognised stock exchanges viz., National Stock Exchange of India Limited and Bombay Stock Exchange, either directly or through agents.
14 Interest rate The investors will be compensated at a fixed rate of 2.50 per cent per annum payable semi-annually on the nominal value.
15 Collateral Bonds can be used as collateral for loans. The loan-to-value (LTV) ratio is to be set equal to ordinary gold loan mandated by the Reserve Bank from time to time.
16 KYC Documentation Know-your-customer (KYC) norms will be the same as that for purchase of physical gold. KYC documents such as Voter ID, Aadhaar card/PAN or TAN /Passport will be required.
17 Tax treatment The interest on Gold Bonds shall be taxable as per the provision of Income Tax Act, 1961 (43 of 1961). The capital gains tax arising on redemption of SGB to an individual has been exempted. The indexation benefits will be provided to long term capital gains arising to any person on transfer of bond
18 Tradability Bonds will be tradable on stock exchanges within a fortnight of the issuance on a date as notified by the RBI.
19 SLR eligibility The Bonds will be eligible for Statutory Liquidity Ratio purposes.
20 Commission Commission for distribution of the bond shall be paid at the rate of 1% of the total subscription received  by  the  receiving offices and receiving offices shall share at least 50% of the commission so received with the agents or sub agents for the business procured through them.

Q4. The SAATHI initiative of the Government in which the Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL) is participating concerns with

a) Development of the Power loom sector

b) Promoting LED lighting technology

c) Improvement in the financial situation of State DISCOMs

d) Establishing electricity gird transmission network in South Asian Countries

ANS: (a)

Explanation: SAATHI
SAATHI
 (Sustainable and Accelerated Adoption of efficient Textile technologies to Help small Industries). Under this initiative, Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), a public sector entity under the administrative control of Ministry of Power, would procure energy efficient Powerlooms, motors and Rapier kits in bulk and provide them to the small and medium Powerloom units at no upfront cost.

The SAATHI initiative of the Government will be jointly implemented by EESL and the office of the Textile Commissioner on a pan-India basis. To kick start the implementation, cluster wise demonstration projects and workshops will be organized in key clusters such as Erode, Surat, Ichalkaranji, etc.

The use of these efficient equipment would result in energy savings and cost savings to the unit owner and he would repay in installments to EESL over a 4 to 5 year period.  This is the aggregation, bulk procurement and financing model that EESL has successfully deployed in several sectors like LED bulbs, Smart Meters and Electric Vehicles.  The unit owner neither has to allocate any upfront capital cost to procure these equipment nor does it have to allocate additional expenditure for repayment as the repayments to EESL are made from the savings that accrue as a result of higher efficiency equipments and cost savings.  The aggregation of demand and bulk procurement will also lead to reduction in capital cost, benefits of which will be passed on to the Power loom units so that their repayment amount and period would reduce.

The Power loom sector in India is predominantly an unorganized sector and has a large number of micro and small units which produce 57 percent of the total cloth in the country.  There are 24.86 lakhs Power loom units in this country, most of whom use obsolete technology.  With a view to upgrading the technology, the Government of India has been implementing the INSITU upgradation of  plain Powerlooms as part of Power Tex India under which plain Powerlooms are attached with process control equipment leading to higher productivity, better quality and more than 50 percent additional value realisation.  So far 1.70 lakhs plain Powerlooms have been upgraded under the scheme, with a total Government of India subsidy of Rs. 186 crores.

Q5. Which of these nations recently decided to withdraw from the historic Paris climate agreement?

  1. a) Switzerland   b) Germany   c) USA.    d) Pakistan

Ans: C

PARIS AGREEMENT

The ultimate purpose of the Paris Agreement was to strengthen the global response to climate change by creating an international network of government bodies, all dedicated to lowering emissions. Syria and Nicaragua were the only countries who did not join the Agreement.

Those who did pledged to work towards a long-term goal of keeping the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, ideally aiming to limit the increase to 1.5°C. This level of temperature change may sound insignificant, but would, in fact, put massive strain on food production, clean water sources and energy production.

Paris Agreement: Essential Elements

The Paris Agreement builds upon the Convention and for the first time brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects, with enhanced support to assist developing countries to do so. As such, it charts a new course in the global climate effort.

The Paris Agreement central aim is to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Additionally, the agreement aims to strengthen the ability of countries to deal with the impacts of climate change. To reach these ambitious goals, appropriate financial flows, a new technology framework and an enhanced capacity building framework will be put in place, thus supporting action by developing countries and the most vulnerable countries, in line with their own national objectives. The Agreement also provides for enhanced transparency of action and support through a more robust transparency framework. Further information on key aspects of the Agreement can be found here.

Nationally Determined Contributions

The Paris Agreement requires all Parties to put forward their best efforts through nationally determined contributions (NDCs) and to strengthen these efforts in the years ahead. This includes requirements that all Parties report regularly on their emissions and on their implementation efforts.Further information on NDCs can be found here.In 2018, Parties will take stock of the collective efforts in relation to progress towards the goal set in the Paris Agreement and to inform the preparation of NDCs.

There will also be a global stock take every 5 years to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of the Agreement and to inform further individual actions by Parties.

Status of Ratification

The Paris Agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016, thirty days after the date on which at least 55 Parties to the Convention accounting in total for at least an estimated 55 % of the total global greenhouse gas emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with the Depositary.

Next

The Paris Agreement was a hard-fought achievement, developed with a loose-fitting framework so as to allow individual countries to develop their own climate strategies.

It was designed not to spook the world’s biggest polluters away from the table and to open a dialogue between nations on an international issue. And, while it was criticized for being too lax, it was a step towards a unified front against climate change.

China and India, countries that were initially assumed to be against such a climate deal, have become some of its more steadfast supporters – now more than ever, in contrast with the United States’ decision.

On June 1, 2017, United States President Donald Trump announced that the U.S. would cease all participation in the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change mitigation. Trump stated that “The Paris accord will undermine (the U.S.) economy,” and “puts (the U.S.) at a permanent disadvantage. During the presidential campaign, Trump had pledged to withdraw from the pact, saying a withdrawal would help American businesses and workers. Trump stated that the withdrawal would be in accordance with his America First policy.

In accordance with Article 28 of the Paris Agreement, the earliest possible effective withdrawal date by the United States cannot be before November 4, 2020, four years after the Agreement came into effect in the United States and one day after the election. The White House later clarified that the U.S. will abide by the four-year exit process. Until the withdrawal takes effect, the United States may be obligated to maintain its commitments under the Agreement, such as the requirement to continue reporting its emissions to the United Nations.

While celebrated by some members of the Republican Party, international reactions to the withdrawal were overwhelmingly negative from across the political spectrum, and the decision received substantial criticism from religious organizations, businesses, political leaders, environmentalists, and scientists and citizens from the United States and abroad.

Following Trump’s announcement, the governors of several U.S. states formed the United States Climate Alliance to continue to advance the objectives of the Paris Agreement despite the federal withdrawal. As at February 22, 2018, 16 states and Puerto Ricohave joined the alliance. And similar commitments have also been expressed by other state governors, mayors, and businesses

Q6.Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform (SDKP) is an initiative of

a) United Nations

b) International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

c) WWF (World Wildlife Fund)

d) Conservation International

Ans:     A

Explanation:

Sustainable Development Goals initiated by united nations as below given

GOAL : END POVERTY IN ALL ITS FORMS EVERYWHERE

a) Rapid growth (SDG 8) is the key weapon in any country’s arsenal for combating poverty. On the one hand, it creates well-paid jobs that empower households by giving them necessary purchasing power to access food, clothing, housing, education and health. On the other, it places ever-rising revenues in the hands of the Government to finance social spending. India has continued its programme of economic reforms to achieve sustained rapid growth. The reforms have included fiscal consolidation, inflation targeting, improved governance all around, accelerated infrastructure development (SDG 9), curbing of corruption (SDG 16), Aadhaar Act, Insolvency and Bankruptcy Act, Goods and Services Tax (GST), further liberalization of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), closure of sick Public Sector Units and much more. The result has been that, today, India is the fastest growing large economy in the world. It grew 7.9 per cent during fiscal year 2015-16 and 7.1 per cent during 2016-17. Growth has brought increased volume of revenues, which have permitted the Government to sustain a high-level of social spending that directly targets poverty, as described immediately below.

b) An important strategy for achieving this goal is focused on generating meaningful employment by developing agricultural infrastructure, productive assets and entrepreneurship-based livelihood opportunities. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), which is sometimes described as the world’s largest cash transfer programme, has generated over 2 billion person-days’ of employment (SDG 8) during the last year. It has helped reduce extreme poverty as well as enhance the infrastructure and purchasing power in rural areas. The benefits have largely been reaped by women (SDG 5) and disadvantaged sections of society (SDG 10). Similarly, the Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Livelihoods Mission provides skilled employment to marginalized communities.

c) Further, two major programmes, the Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana and Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana, provide access to life and accident insurance for 130 million subscribers for nominal annual premiums. Additionally, initiatives like the Atal Pension Yojana and the National Social Assistance Programme provide pension to workers in the unorganized sector, widows and the differently abled.

d) Another crucial strategy for eliminating poverty is ensuring access to basic services. In the areaof education, there is a National Mission, which is focused on providing universal access to quality primary education. Moreover, the Right to Education Act has established an effective legal framework entitling all children (6-14 years) to free and compulsory education based on principles of equity and non-discrimination. Similarly, the National Health Mission and the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) initiatives strive to provide access to primary health care and nutrition for the population.

e) India is committed to ensuring housing for all by 2022. To enable the achievement of thisobjective, the Prime Minister’s Housing Scheme provides direct financial assistance to poor households.

f) For fulfilling the cooking fuel requirements of the population in an environmentally friendly manner, the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana, launched in 2016, aims to provide Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) to poor families with initial financial support for accessing a connection. The programme has enabled the provision of more than 20 million LPG connections since its launch a year ago.

g) Providing access to adequate and safe drinking water as well as sanitation is crucial. Under the National Rural Drinking Water Programme, more than 77% of the rural habitations have been fully covered with 40 litres of drinking water per capita on a daily basis. The objective of the Clean India Movement is to ensure an Open Defecation Free India by 2019. Over the last two years, more than 39 million household toilets have been constructed. Moreover, 193,000 villages and 531 cities have been successful in ending the practice of open defecation. The Movement also focuses on bringing about sustained behaviour change through the engagement of a range of stakeholders, including religious and political leaders.

GOAL : END HUNGER, ACHIEVE FOOD SECURITY AND IMPROVED NUTRITION AND PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

a) Programmes under the National Food Security Act cover more than 800 million people in the country. The Public Distribution System, for instance, is one of the largest food security initiatives in the world. In recognition of empirical evidence that women pay greater attention to household security, the Government has chosen to issue ration cards in the name of the senior most female member of the household. Other initiatives that contribute to this goal are the ICDS and the Mid-Day Meal Programme. The latter provides nutritious cooked meals to 100 million children in primary schools.

b) Governance reforms are being undertaken for improving the effectiveness of food security programmes. These include digitization of ration cards, leveraging Aadhaar for authenticated delivery of benefits and an online grievance redressal mechanism.

c) Further, the National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture in collaboration with other stakeholders is implementing climate change adaptation strategies for sustaining agricultural productivity. Since 2014, the land under organic farming has increased to 200,000 ha. Additionally, over 62 million Soil Health Cards, with crop-wise nutrient management advisories, have been issued.

d) Moreover, a comprehensive plan is being implemented for doubling farmers’ income by 2022. This includes expediting tenancy reforms, promoting crop diversification and expanding micro-irrigation (1.3 million ha covered during the last two years).

e) Another area in which considerable progress has been made is digitization of agricultural marketing. The electronic National Agricultural Marketing platform now covers 250 Mandis (agricultural markets) across the country. A revamped crop insurance programme, the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana, has also been launched.

GOAL : ENSURE HEALTHY LIVES AND PROMOTE WELLBEING FOR ALL AT ALL AGES

a) Beyond increasing access, several initiatives are also being taken for improving the quality of health services. These include the development of a composite index and an award for ensuring a hygienic environment in Government health facilities.

b) The National Health Policy, 2017, specifies targets for universalizing primary health care, reducing infant and under-5 mortality, preventing premature deaths due to non-communicable diseases as well as increasing Government expenditure on health.

c) To tackle the death of children due to vaccine-preventable diseases and the risk due to incomplete immunization, the Government is aiming to provide vaccination against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, tuberculosis, polio, measles and hepatitis to all unimmunized or partially immunized children by 2020.

d) As a step towards achieving universal health coverage, the Government of India has announced a health insurance cover to the tune of INR 100,000 (USD 1,563) for families below the poverty line.

GOAL: ACHIEVE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER ALL WOMEN AND GIRLS

a) Several important initiatives have been taken during the last few years for promoting gender equality. A flagship initiative is Beti Bachao Beti Padao (Save the Girl Child Educate the Girl Child), under which State Governments are implementing a range of measures suited to their local contexts to elevate the status of the girl child.

b) Additionally, a Maternity Benefit Programme has been launched for all pregnant and lactating mothers. Through conditional cash transfer, it protects women from wage loss during the first six months after childbirth.

c) For raising the levels of female labour force participation, a number of initiatives are being implemented including Stand-up India and MGNREGA. The Women Empowerment Campaign is another effort focused on enabling digital literacy and gainful employment opportunities.

d) Further, Women Empowerment Centers are being established for providing comprehensive services at the village-level.

GOAL: BUILD RESILIENT INFRASTRUCTURE, PROMOTE INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIALIZATION AND FOSTER INNOVATION

a) All forms of transportation — roads, railways, civil aviation and waterways — are being rapidly expanded. Road connectivity and electricity are being brought to all villages.

b) The objective of the Digital India initiative is to build a digitally empowered society by focusing on broadband highways, mobile connectivity and Internet as well as e-Governance. For example, the Bharat Broadband Network Ltd has provided high-speed connectivity to 18,434 local village councils, thus far. Till December 2016, there were 432 million internet users in the country.

c) Another priority area is manufacturing. The new Manufacturing Policy raises the output target from 16% of GDP to 25% by 2025. India is developing into a high-tech and global manufacturing hub because of the emphasis on ‘Make in India’ and a substantial increase in FDI inflows.

d) The Government has also introduced a number of policy measures for boosting employment-intensive manufacturing segments. For instance, the recently introduced Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana provides easy credit ranging from INR 50,000 to 1 million (USD 780 to 15,600) to small-scale business entrepreneurs. A major package announced for the textiles industry aims to create hundreds of thousands of jobs in this sector.

e) For promoting entrepreneurship and enhancing economic growth, the Government has launched the Start-up India programme. Innovation and entrepreneurship is also being encouraged through initiatives like the Atal Innovation Mission. Additionally, NITI Aayog has launched the India Innovation Index for ranking innovations in the country.

GOAL: CONSERVE AND SUSTAINABLY USE THE OCEANS, SEAS AND MARINE RESOURCES

a) Several strategies have been put in place for realizing the Blue Revolution in the country. These include strengthening marine research, developing an eco-friendly marine industrial and technology base as well as implementing the National Fisheries Action Plan.

b) Significant progress has been made with respect to preservation and management of the marine ecosystem. For instance, the Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System tracks the levels of marine pollution along the coastline. Additionally, the Online Oil Spill Advisory System enhances the effectiveness of the national response to marine oil spills. India is also implementing the revised National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan.

c) Further, the Sagarmala programme is focused on improving port connectivity, port-linked industrialization and coastal community development. Under this initiative, support is also provided for the development of deep sea fishing vessels and fish processing centers.

GOAL: REVITALIZE THE GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

a) A revitalized global partnership is crucial for the achievement of the SDGs. India is committed to taking measurable actions for implementing the SDG agenda. We also reaffirm the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. This is important because while efforts at raising resources domestically will help India move closer to the attainment of the SDGs, they are unlikely to result in sufficient revenues. Therefore, we reiterate that the developed countries have an essential obligation to provide financial assistance to the developing countries, especially for global public goods such as climate change mitigation and control of pandemics, so that they can fully achieve the SDGs. International cooperation is also essential for curbing illicit financial flows, defining aid unambiguously and establishing robust systems for monitoring commitments made by donor countries.

b) For increasing the domestic mobilization of resources, a path-breaking tax reform agenda is being finalized. This includes direct tax reforms as well as the GST, a uniform and simplified form of indirect taxation. An innovative tax like the Swachh Bharat Cess (Clean India Cess) has also been levied for mobilizing resources for the Clean India Campaign.

  1. c) Additionally, implementation of the budget responsibility legislation is ensuring predictable and sustainable budgeting as well as long-term debt sustainability.

d) Financing of sustainable sources of energy is being promoted to provide energy for all by 2022 through a massive 150 GW increase in energy from renewables. Enhanced international cooperation is also being fostered through the leadership of the International Solar Alliance.

e) Further, consistent policies have opened up the economy to FDI. This has resulted in $156 billion FDI flow during the last three fiscal years. The flow of $56 billion in the latest fiscal year has been larger than that in any other year.

f) The 14th Finance Commission award is being implemented to substantially enhance fiscal devolution to States (from 32% to 42% of the central pool of tax proceeds) and Local Governments. This is enabling a significant spurt in development interventions designed and implemented independently by sub-national Governments.

g) Enhancing development cooperation with neighbouring and other countries of the global South brings India’s innovation and expertise to the service of these countries. For instance, launching of the South Asia Satellite will lead to sharing of valuable data with neighbouring countries including Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Afghanistan.

Q7.Consider the following about Very High Resolution (VHR) Satellite Imagery.

  1. It offers sub-centimeter resolution.
  2. Any type of vehicles on road can be identified using VHR imagery.
  3. Structural changes of landscapes can be easily monitored with this imagery.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only                b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only                d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:    B

Explanation:

Very High Resolution (VHR) Satellite Imagery offers sub-meter resolution – one of the highest image qualities currently available from commercial remote sensing satellites.

iSi’s very highest resolution (VHR) earth observation satellites are a key asset in our remote sensing capabilities. The highly maneuverable low earth orbiting satellites are noted for its quality, versatility and accessibility.

Among the most common applications of VHR consists  strategic and tactical Intelligence, counter terrorism, counter drug trafficking, GIS mapping, change detection and various types of surveillance and monitoring, including maritime monitoring, border control and national infrastructure.

Sub-meter (VHR) resolution satellites offer users a smaller ground sampling distance (GSD) than other imaging satellites, making them more suitable for reliable natural or man-made, objects and landscapes observation, site monitoring, object identification and many other tasks requiring precision data.

Among its many advantages, VHR images enable the identification of specific models of vehicles, vessels and airplanes, as well as the monitoring of structural changes, natural disasters, industrial operations and livestock. This versatility makes EROS imagery a powerful resource for both civilian and military needs.

Q8. Consider the following statements. A person of Indian Origin (PIO) card holder

  1. Doesn’t need a visa to visit India.
  2. Doesn’t require a student or employment visa to acquire employment or academic opportunities inIndia.
  3. has voting rights equivalent to NRIs

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only           b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only           d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     A

Explanation:

PERSON OF INDIAN ORIGIN (PIO)

PERSON OF INDIAN ORIGIN (PIO) CARD A Person of Indian Origin (PIO) means a foreign citizen (except a national of Pakistan, Afghanistan Bangladesh, China, Iran, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Nepal) who at any time held an Indian passport.

Or who or either of their parents/ grandparents/ great grandparents was born and permanently resident in India as defined in Government of India Act, 1935 and other territories that became part of India thereafter provided neither was at any time a citizen of any of the aforesaid countries (as referred above); Or Who is a spouse of a citizen of India or a PIO

Q9. In the Union Budget 2011-12, a full exemption from the basic customs duty was extended to the bio-based asphalt (bioashphalt). What is the importance of this material?

  1. Unlike traditional asphalt, bio-asphalt is not based on fossil fuels.
  2. Bioasphalt can be made from non-renewable resources.
  3. Bioasphalt can be made from organic waste materials.
  4. It is eco-friendly to use biosphalt for surfacing of the roads. Which of the statements given above are correct?

a) 1, 2 and 3 only           b) 1, 3 and 4 only

c) 2 and 4 only               d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans      B

In the construction world, most flexible pavement constructions use synthetic asphalt made from crude oil and well-known as conventional asphalt. Therefore, to find more environmentally friendly construction people around the world are very interested in finding a bioasphalt. The bioasphalt is used because of several reasons, such as asphalt mixtures derived from plants and trees could replace petroleum-based mixtures. One of bioasphalt which can be used as an alternative material of conventional asphalt is resin (damar). The existence of damar in Indonesia is very huge, especially in Lampung, South Sumatera, Indonesia.

In this study, the researchers used experimental research based on laboratory works. The percentages of natural resin used in the conventional asphalt 60/70 pen are 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% modification. The selected test, including Marshall stability test to get the optimum bitumen content, unconfined compressive test, indirect tensile test and permeability test. The research result shows that asphalt with resin is different with conventional asphalt 60/70 pen in terms of asphalt quality, because the asphalt modified with resin has higher penetration value and specific gravity than conventional asphalt. The result of the Marshall stability test, unconfined compressive test, indirect tensile test and permeability test is high if the asphalt modified with higher natural resin. On the other hand, the optimum bitumen content value relatively similar with the modification of natural resin.

Q10. In the context of global oil prices, “Brent crude oil” is frequently referred to in the news. What does this term imply?

  1. It is a major classification of crude oil
  2. Its is sourced from North Sea.
  3. It does not contain sulphur.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 2 only         b) 1 and 2 only           c) 1 and 3 only              d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans      B

Brent Crude is a major trading classification of sweet light crude oil that serves as a major benchmark price for purchases of oil worldwide. This grade is described as light because of its relatively low density, and sweet because of its low sulphur content. Brent Crude is extracted from the North Sea and comprises Brent Blend, Forties Blend, oseberg and Ekofisk crudes (also known as the BFOE Quotation). The Brent Crude oil marker is also known as Brent Blend, London Brent and Brent petroleum.

The other well-known classifications (also called references or benchmarks) are the OPEC Reference Basket, Dubai Crude, Oman Crude, Urals oil and West Texas Intermediate (WTI). Brent is the leading global price benchmark for Atlantic basin crude oils. It is used to price two thirds of the world’s internationally traded crude oil supplies

 

 

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