Today’s Topic: Exam Important Current Affairs MCQ’s-10
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EveryDay Program List
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Thursday- History of India and Indian National Movement
Friday- Economic and Social Development
Saturday-Exam Important Current Affairs Topics
Today’s Topic: Exam Important Current Affairs Topics-10
Q1. The 2004 Tsunami made people realize that mangroves can serve as a reliable safety hedge against coastal calamities. How do mangroves function as a safety hedge?
a) The mangrove swamps separate the human settlements from the sea by a wide zone in which people neither live not venture out
b) The mangroves provide both food and medicines which people are in need of after any natural
c) The mangrove trees are tall with dense canopies and serve as an excellent shelter during a cyclone or tsunami
d) The mangrove trees do not get uprooted by storms and tides because of their extensive roots
There are about 80 different species of mangrove trees. All of these trees grow in areas with low-oxygen soil, where slow-moving waters allow fine sediments to accumulate. Mangrove forests only grow at tropical and subtropical latitudes near the equator because they cannot withstand freezing temperatures.
Many mangrove forests can be recognized by their dense tangle of prop roots that make the trees appear to be standing on stilts above the water. This tangle of roots allows the trees to handle the daily rise and fall of tides, which means that most mangroves get flooded at least twice per day. The roots also slow the movement of tidal waters, causing sediments to settle out of the water and build up the muddy bottom.
Mangrove forests stabilize the coastline, reducing erosion from storm surges, currents, waves, and tides. The intricate root system of mangroves also makes these forests attractive to fish and other organisms seeking food and shelter from predators.
Mangrove forests are taxonomically diverse assemblages of trees and shrubs that form the dominant plant communities in tidal, saline wetlands along sheltered tropical and subtropical coasts. They have several ecological and physical functions that are essential in maintaining biodiversity and protecting populations of humans and animals. One of the most important functions is to provide a barrier or buffer between the land and the sea, with mangroves protecting landward coastal zones against potentially devastating ocean events, including tsunamis.
Tsunamis are long waves generated by major geologic events, including underwater earthquakes, landslides, and volcanic eruptions, which rapidly flood adjacent and distant coastlines and coastal communities. Such floods typically have devastating impacts on both land and human-made structures. Mangroves have adapted to their intertidal environments and are able to withstand furious high-energy tidal events. For example, certain mangrove species can block or buffer wave action via their stems and aerial roots, which can measure 30 m (98 ft) in height. However, the elimination of many mangrove habitats, predominantly by human activities (for example, deforestation, land reclamation for tourist enterprises, and fragmentation caused by urbanization), has created a scenario in which coastal areas (particularly in Southeast Asia) are more vulnerable to the destructive effects of a tsunami event.
Unfortunately, the role of mangroves as living barriers has not always been appreciated, and many mangrove forests have fallen prey to developers without regard to the environmental effects. For example, studies analyzing the effects of tsunamis on shoreline areas have determined that mangroves suffering from various types of ecological degradation were less resistant than unaltered pristine mangroves. One study was conducted in the aftermath of the massive 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that devastated huge areas in Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and India, as well as killing more than 230,000 people. Researchers in the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean found a remarkable situation: In areas that had pristine mangrove forests, only 7% of the villages hit by the tsunami were severely damaged; in contrast, in areas with mangrove degradation or elimination (chiefly as the result of development by tourist industries or aquaculture companies), the devastation of villages reached 80–100%. Other investigations of smaller tsunami events since 2004 have reached similar conclusions. Thus, the preservation and recolonization of mangrove forests are necessary steps to ensure the barrier protection afforded by these strategic greenbelts against tsunami events
Q2. The “Red Data Books” published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resource (IUCN) contain lists of
- Endemic plant and animal species present in the biodiversity hotspots.
- Threatened plant and animal species.
- Protected sites for conservation of nature and natural resources in various countries.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
a) 1 and 3 b) 2 only c) 2 and 3 d) 3 only
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species. It uses a set of criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world. With its strong scientific base, the IUCN Red List is recognized as the most authoritative guide to the status of biological diversity. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit.
The IUCN Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world. The aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (1996), the formally stated goals of the Red List are (1) to provide scientifically based information on the status of species and subspecies at a global level, (2) to draw attention to the magnitude and importance of threatened biodiversity, (3) to influence national and international policy and decision-making, and (4) to provide information to guide actions to conserve biological diversity.
Major species assessors include BirdLife International, the Institute of Zoology (the research division of the Zoological Society of London), the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and many Specialist Groups within the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC). Collectively, assessments by these organizations and groups account for nearly half the species on the Red List.
The IUCN aims to have the category of every species re-evaluated every five years if possible, or at least every ten years. This is done in a peer reviewed manner through IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) Specialist Groups, which are Red List Authorities responsible for a species, group of species or specific geographic area, or in the case of BirdLife International, an entire class
Q3. Consider the following:
- Right to education.
- Right to equal access to public service.
- Right to food.
Which of the above is/are Human Right/Human Rights under “Universal Declaration of Human Rights”?
a) 1 only b) 1 and 2 only c) 3 only d) 1, 2 and 3
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a milestone document in the history of human rights. Drafted by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948 (General Assembly resolution 217 A) as a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations. It sets out, for the first time, fundamental human rights to be universally protected
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people.
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law.
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge.
Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.
1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.
1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay
1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.
1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.
Q4. Recently, the USA decided to support India’s membership in multi-lateral export control regimes called the “Australia Group” and the “Wassenaar Arrangement”. What is the difference between them?
- The Australia Group is an informal arrangement which aim to allow exporting countries to minimize the risk of assisting chemical and biological weapons proliferation, whereas the Wassenaar Arrangement is a formal group under the OECD holding identical objectives.
- The Australia Group comprises predominantly of Asian. African and North American countries, whereas the member countries of Wassenaar Arrangement are predominantly from the European Union and American continents.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only b) 2 Only c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
The Australia Group : An Introduction
The Australia Group is an informal arrangement which aims to allow exporting or transshipping countries to minimise the risk of assisting chemical and biological weapon (CBW) proliferation. The Group meets annually to discuss ways of increasing the effectiveness of participating countries’ national export licensing measures to prevent would-be proliferators from obtaining materials for CBW programs
Participants in the Australia Group do not undertake any legally binding obligations: the effectiveness of their cooperation depends solely on a shared commitment to CBW non-proliferation goals and the strength of their respective national measures. Key considerations in the formulation of participants’ export licensing measures are:
- they should be effective in impeding the production of chemical and biological weapons;
- they should be practical, and reasonably easy to implement, and
- they should not impede the normal trade of materials and equipment used for legitimate purposes.
All states participating in the Australia Group are parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), and strongly support efforts under those Conventions to rid the world of CBW
The Participating States of the Wassenaar Arrangement are:
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom and United States.
The Wassenaar Arrangement has been established in order to contribute to regional and international security and stability, by promoting transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, thus preventing destabilising accumulations. Participating States seek, through their national policies, to ensure that transfers of these items do not contribute to the development or enhancement of military capabilities which undermine these goals, and are not diverted to support such capabilities. The aim is also to prevent the acquisition of these items by terrorists.
Participating States apply export controls to all items set forth in the List of Dual-Use Goods and Technologies and the Munitions List, with the objective of preventing unauthorized transfers or re-transfers of those items.
To assist in developing common understandings of transfer risks, Participating States regularly exchange information of both a general and a specific nature. Participating States are required to report their arms transfers and transfers/denials of certain dual-use goods and technologies to destinations outside the Arrangement on a six-monthly basis. In some cases, shorter reporting time-frames apply.
In fulfilling the purposes of the Arrangement as described above, Participating States have, inter alia, agreed to a number of guidelines, elements and procedures as a basis for decision-making through the application of their own national legislation and policies.
The decision to transfer or deny the transfer of any item is the sole responsibility of each Participating State. All measures with respect to the Arrangement are taken in accordance with national legislation and policies and are implemented on the basis of national discretion. For specifics on Export Controls in Participating States National contacts.
Representatives of Participating States meet regularly in Vienna where the Wassenaar Arrangement has established its headquarters and a small Secretariat.
The Wassenaar Arrangement Plenary is the decision-making body of the Arrangement. It is composed of representatives of all Participating States and normally meets once a year, usually in December. The position of Plenary Chair is subject to annual rotation among Participating States. In 2016 the Plenary Chair was held by Finland, and in 2017 the Chair is held by France. All Plenary decisions are taken by consensus.
The Plenary establishes subsidiary bodies for the preparation of recommendations for Plenary decisions and calls ad hoc meetings for consultations on issues related to the functioning of the Wassenaar Arrangement. At present, the main Wassenaar Arrangement subsidiary bodies are: the General Working Group (GWG) dealing with policy-related matters, and the Experts Group (EG) addressing issues related to the lists of controlled items. Once a year, a Licensing and Enforcement Officers Meeting (LEOM) is held.
Vienna Points of Contact (VPOC) are called for periodic meetings under the Plenary Chair to facilitate intersessional information flow and communications between/among Participating States and the Secretariat.
Q5. What is the difference between Bluetooth and Wi-Fi devices?
a) Bluetooth uses 2.4 GHz radio frequency band, whereas Wi-Fi can use 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency band
b) Bluetooth is used for Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) only, whereas Wi-Fi is used for Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWAN) only
c) When information is transmitted between two devices using Bluetooth technology, the devices have to be in the line of sight of each other, but when Wi-Fi technology is used the devices need not be in the line of sight of each other
d) The statements (a) and (b) given above are correct in this context
Bluetooth technology is a short-range wireless communications technology to replace the cables connecting electronic devices, allowing a person to have a phone conversation via a headset, use a wireless mouse and synchronize information from a mobile phone to a PC, all using the same core system.
The Bluetooth RF transceiver (or physical layer) operates in the unlicensed ISM band centered at 2.4 gigahertz (the same range of frequencies used by microwaves and Wi-Fi). The core system employs a frequency-hopping transceiver to combat interference and fading.
Bluetooth devices are managed using an RF topology known as a “star topology.” A group of devices synchronized in this fashion forms a piconet, which may contain one master and up to seven active slaves, with additional slaves that are not actively participating in the network. (A given device may also be part of one or more piconets, either as a master or as a slave.) In a piconet, the physical radio channel is shared by a group of devices that are synchronized to a common clock and frequency-hopping pattern, with the master device providing the synchronization references.
Let’s say the master device is your mobile phone. All of the other devices in your piconet are known as slaves. This could include your headset, GPS receiver, MP3 player, car stereo, and so on.
Devices in a piconet use a specific frequency-hopping pattern, which is algorithmically determined by the master device. The basic hopping pattern is a pseudorandom ordering of the 79 frequencies in the ISM band. The hopping pattern may be adapted to exclude a portion of the frequencies that are used by interfering devices. The adaptive hopping technique improves Bluetooth technology’s coexistence with static (nonhopping) ISM systems, such as Wi-Fi networks, when these are located in the vicinity of a piconet.
The physical channel (or the wireless link) is subdivided into time units known as slots. Data is transmitted between Bluetooth-enabled devices in packets that are positioned in these slots. Frequency hopping takes place between the transmission or reception of packets, so the packets that make up one transmission may be sent over different frequencies within the ISM band.
The physical channel is also used as a transport for one or more logical links that support synchronous and asynchronous traffic as well as broadcast traffic. Each type of link has a specific use. For instance, synchronous traffic is used to carry hands-free audio data, while asynchronous traffic may carry other forms of data that can withstand more variability in the timing for delivery, such as printing a file or synchronizing your calendar between your phone and computer.
One of the complexities often associated with wireless technology is the process of connecting wireless devices. Users have become accustomed to the process of connecting wired devices by plugging one end of a cable into one device and the other end into the complementary device.
Bluetooth technology uses the principles of device “inquiry” and “inquiry scan.” Scanning devices listen in on known frequencies for devices that are actively inquiring. When an inquiry is received, the scanning device sends a response with the information needed for the inquiring device to determine and display the nature of the device that has recognized its signal.
Let’s say you want to wirelessly print a picture from your mobile phone to a nearby printer. In this case, you go to the picture on your phone and select print as an option for sending that picture. The phone would begin searching for devices in the area. The printer (the scanning device) would respond to the inquiry and, as a result, would appear on the phone as an available printing device. By responding, the printer is ready to accept the connection. When you select the Bluetooth wireless printer, the printing process kicks off by establishing connections at successively higher layers of the Bluetooth protocol stack that, in this case, control the printing function.
Like any successful technology, all of this complexity goes on without the user being aware of anything more than the task he or she is trying to complete, like connecting devices and talking hands-free or listening to high-quality stereo music on wireless headphones.
Wi-Fi is a wireless networking protocol that allows devices to communicate without internet cords. It’s technically an industry term that represents a type of wireless local area network (LAN) protocol based on the 802.11IEEE network standard
Wi-Fi is the most popular means of communicating data wirelessly, within a fixed location. It’s a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance, an international association of companies involved with wireless LAN technologies and products.
Note: Wi-Fi is commonly mistaken as an acronym for “wireless fidelity.” It’s also sometimes spelled as wifi, Wifi, WIFI or WiFi, but none of these are officially approved by the Wi-Fi Alliance. Wi-Fi is also used synonymously with the word “wireless,” but wireless is actually much broader.
The easiest way to understand Wi-Fi is to consider an average home or business since most of them support Wi-Fi access. The main requirement for Wi-Fi is that there’s a device that can transmit the wireless signal, like a router, phone or computer.
In a typical home, a router transmits an internet connection coming from outside the network, like an ISP, and delivers that service to nearby devices that can reach the wireless signal. Another way to use Wi-Fi is a Wi-Fi hotspot so that a phone or computer can share its wireless or wired internet connection, similar to how a router works.
No matter how the Wi-Fi is being used or what its source of connection is, the result is always the same: a wireless signal that lets other devices connect to the main transmitter for communication, like to transfer files or carry voice messages.
Wi-Fi, from the user’s perspective, is just internet access from a wireless capable device like a phone, tablet or laptop. Most modern devices support Wi-Fi so that it can access a network to get internet access and share network resources.
There are tons of places to get free Wi-Fi access, like in restaurants and hotels, but Wi-Fi isn’t free just because it’s Wi-Fi. What determines the cost is whether or not the service has a data cap.
For Wi-Fi to work, the device transmitting the signal has to have an internet connection, which is not free. For example, if you have the internet at your house, you’re probably paying a monthly a fee to keep it coming. If you use Wi-Fi so that your iPAD and Smart TV can connect to the internet, those devices don’t have to pay for the internet individually but the incoming line to the home still costs regardless of whether or not Wi-Fi is used.
However, most home internet connections don’t have data caps, which is why it’s not a problem to download hundred of gigabytes of data each month. However, phones usually do have data caps, which is why Wi-Fi hotspots are something to look for and use when you can.
If your phone can only use 10 GB of data in a month and you have a Wi-Fi hotspot set up, while it’s true that other devices can connect to your phone and use the internet as much as they want, the data cap is still set at 10 GB and it applies to any data moving through the main device. In that case, anything over 10 GB used between the Wi-Fi devices will push the plan over its limit and accrue extra fees.
Q6. What is “Virtual Private Network”?
a) It is a private compute network of an organization where he remote users can transmit encrypted information through the server of the
b) It is a computer network across a public internet that provides users access to their organization’s network while maintaining the security of the information transmitted.
c) It is a computer network in which users can access a shared pool of computing resources through a service provider
d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is a correct description of Virtual Private Network.
VPN literally stands for virtual private network. With a VPN, all your traffic is held inside a private, encrypted tunnel as it makes its way through the public internet. You don’t access the destination until after you’ve reached the end of the VPN tunnel.
The root of why VPNs are popular is because they can be used to anonymize and encrypt internet traffic. Governments, ISPs, wireless network hackers and others can not only not see what’s inside a VPN but also usually not even be able to find out who is using it.
One reason a VPN might be used is in a work environment. A mobile user who needs access to information from a work server might be given VPN credentials to log in to the server when away so that he can still access important files.
Other types of VPNs include site-to-site VPNs, where one entire local area network (LAN) is joined or connected to another LAN, such as satellite offices connected together in one corporate network over the internet.
Probably the most common use for a VPN is to hide your internet traffic from agencies that can gather your information, such as ISPs, websites or governments. Sometimes, users who are obtaining files illegally will use a VPN, like when accessing copyright material through torrent websites.
Q7. In the Union Budget 2011-12, a full exemption from the basic customs duty was extended to the bio-based asphalt (bioashphalt). What is the importance of this material?
- Unlike traditional asphalt, bio-asphalt is not based on fossil fuels.
- Bioasphalt can be made from non-renewable resources.
- Bioasphalt can be made from organic waste materials.
- It is eco-friendly to use biosphalt for surfacing of the roads. Which of the statements given above are correct?
a) 1, 2 and 3 only b) 1, 3 and 4 only
c) 2 and 4 only d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
In the construction world, most flexible pavement constructions use synthetic asphalt made from crude oil and well-known as conventional asphalt. Therefore, to find more environmentally friendly construction people around the world are very interested in finding a bioasphalt. The bioasphalt is used because of several reasons, such as asphalt mixtures derived from plants and trees could replace petroleum-based mixtures. One of bioasphalt which can be used as an alternative material of conventional asphalt is resin (damar). The existence of damar in Indonesia is very huge, especially in Lampung, South Sumatera, Indonesia.
In this study, the researchers used experimental research based on laboratory works. The percentages of natural resin used in the conventional asphalt 60/70 pen are 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% modification. The selected test, including Marshall stability test to get the optimum bitumen content, unconfined compressive test, indirect tensile test and permeability test. The research result shows that asphalt with resin is different with conventional asphalt 60/70 pen in terms of asphalt quality, because the asphalt modified with resin has higher penetration value and specific gravity than conventional asphalt. The result of the Marshall stability test, unconfined compressive test, indirect tensile test and permeability test is high if the asphalt modified with higher natural resin. On the other hand, the optimum bitumen content value relatively similar with the modification of natural resin.
Q8. In the context of global oil prices, “Brent crude oil” is frequently referred to in the news. What does this term imply?
- It is a major classification of crude oil
- Its is sourced from North Sea.
- It does not contain sulphur.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 2 only b) 1 and 2 only c) 1 and 3 only d) 1, 2 and 3
Brent Crude is a major trading classification of sweet light crude oil that serves as a major benchmark price for purchases of oil worldwide. This grade is described as light because of its relatively low density, and sweet because of its low sulphur content. Brent Crude is extracted from the North Sea and comprises Brent Blend, Forties Blend, oseberg and Ekofisk crudes (also known as the BFOE Quotation). The Brent Crude oil marker is also known as Brent Blend, London Brent and Brent petroleum.
The other well-known classifications (also called references or benchmarks) are the OPEC Reference Basket, Dubai Crude, Oman Crude, Urals oil and West Texas Intermediate (WTI). Brent is the leading global price benchmark for Atlantic basin crude oils. It is used to price two thirds of the world’s internationally traded crude oil supplies
Q9. With what purpose is the Government of India promoting the concept of “Mega Food Parks”?
- To provide good infrastructure facilities for the food processing industry.
- To increase the processing of perishable items and reduce wastage.
- To provide emerging and eco-friendly food processing technologies to entrepreneurs.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
a) 1 only b) 1 and 2 only c) 2 and 3 only d) 1, 2 and 3
Salient Features of Mega Food Parks
The Mega Food ParksScheme aims to provide a mechanism to bring together farmers, processors and retailers and link agriculture production to the market so as to ensure maximization of value addition, minimization of wastages and improving farmers’ income. The primary objective of the Scheme is to provide modern infrastructure facilities for the food processing along the value chain from the farm to the market with a cluster based approach based on a hub and spokes model.It includes creation of infrastructure for primary processing and storage near the farm in the form of Primary Processing Centres (PPCs) and Collection Centres (CCs) and common facilities and enabling infrastructure like roads, electricity, water, ETP facilities etc. at Central Processing Centre (CPC). These PPCs and CCs act as aggregation and storage points to feed raw material to the food processing units located in the CPC.
Food Processing being capital incentive activity, common facilities are created at CPC to be used by the processing units on hire basis. This helps in reducing the cost of individual units significantly and makes them more viable. The minimum land required for a Central Processing Centre in Mega Food Park is 50 acre and implementation period is 30 months. The scheme is demand-driven and would facilitate food processing units to meet environmental, safety and social standards. A cluster of 30-35 units is expected to come up in one Mega Food Park with an investment of about Rs. 250 Crore. It is likely to benefit about 6000 farmers/ producers directly and 25000-30000 farmers indirectly.
The financial assistance under the scheme is provided in the form of grant-in-aid @ 50% of eligible project cost in general areas and @ 75% of eligible project cost in NE Region and difficult areas (Hilly States and ITDP areas) subject to maximum of Rs. 50 crore per project.
Q10. With reference to “Look East Policy” of India, consider the following statements:
- India wants to establish itself as an important regional player in the East Asian affairs.
- India wants to plug the vacuum created by the termination of Cold War.
- India wants to restore the historical and cultural ties with its neighbours in Southeast and East Asia.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only b) 1 and 3 only c) 3 only d) 1, 2 and 3
Act East Policy
India’s Act East Policy focusses on the extended neighbourhood in the Asia-Pacific region. The policy which was originally conceived as an economic initiative, has gained political, strategic and cultural dimensions including establishment of institutional mechanisms for dialogue and cooperation. India has upgraded its relations to strategic partnership with Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Japan, Republic of Korea (ROK), Australia, Singapore and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and forged close ties with all countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Further, apart from ASEAN, ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and East Asia Summit (EAS), India has also been actively engaged in regional for a such as Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC), Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), Mekong Ganga Cooperation (MGC) and Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA). Act East Policy has placed emphasis on India-ASEAN cooperation in our domestic agenda on infrastructure, manufacturing, trade, skills, urban renewal, smart cities, Make in India and other initiatives. Connectivity projects, cooperation in space, S&T and people-to-people exchanges could become a springboard for regional integration and prosperity.
The Objective of ”Act East Policy” is to promote economic cooperation, cultural ties and develop strategic relationship with countries in the Asia-Pacific region through continuous engagement at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels thereby providing enhanced connectivity to the States of North Eastern Region including Arunanchal Pradesh with other countries in our neighbourhood. The North East of India has been a priority in our Act East Policy (AEP). AEP provides an interface between North East India including the state of Arunachal Pradesh and the ASEAN region. Various plans at bilateral and regional levels include steady efforts to develop and strengthen connectivity of Northeast with the ASEAN region through trade, culture, people-to-people contacts and physical infrastructure (road, airport, telecommunication, power, etc.). Some of the major projects include Kaladan Multi-modal Transit Transport Project, the India-Myanmar-Thailand Trilateral Highway Project, Rhi-Tiddim Road Project, Border Haats, etc.
The ASEAN-India Plan of Action for the period 2016-20 has been adopted in August 2015 which identifies concrete initiatives and areas of cooperation along the three pillars of political-security, economic and socio-cultural. India continues with stepped up efforts to forge closer partnership with concerned regional and Multilateral organisation such as ASEAN, ARF, EAS, BIMSTEC, ACD, MCG and IORA. On the Civilizational front, Buddhist and Hindu links could be energized to develop new contacts and connectivity between people. On Connectivity, special efforts are being made to develop a coherent strategy, particularly for linking ASEAN with our North East. Measures, including building transport infrastructure, encouraging airlines to enhance connectivity in the region, contacts between academic and cultural institutions are underway. Our economic engagement with ASEAN has been stepped up – regional integration and implementation of projects are priorities. The ASEAN-India Agreement on Trade in Service and Investments has entered into force for India and seven ASEAN countries. The ASEAN-India Trade Negotiating Committee has been tasked to undertake a review of the ASEAN-India Trade in Goods Agreement. India has also invited ASEAN member states to participate in the International Solar Alliance which it has co-launched with France at COP-21. On strategic issues, we have increasing convergence on security interests with key partners both in bilateral and multilateral format. Closer cooperation in combating terrorism, collaborating for peace and stability in the region and promotion of maritime security based on international norms and laws are being pursued.
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