# Chapter Wise Ecology & Environment MCQ’S With Explanation

#### Today’s Topic: Ecosystem and Ecology

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#### EveryDay Program List

Sunday- Indian and world Geography

Monday-General issues on Environmental Ecology, bio-diversity and Climate Change

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Wednesday- Indian Polity and Governance

Thursday- History of India and Indian National Movement

Friday- Economic and Social Development

Saturday-Current Affairs Concepts

#### Q1. Which of the following are the components of Biosphere?

1. Biotic         2. Abiotic          3. Energy

a) Only 1 and 2             b) Only 1 and 3              c) Only 2 and 3                 d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Biosphere is the largest ecosystem i.e. earth. It is the global sum of all ecosystem on the earth. It becomes the largest ecosystem because it (the biosphere ecosystem) consists of biotic components (plants, animals, man, micro-organisms), abiotic components (land, air and water) and energy components (solar and geothermal energy) and these are on the scale of earth.

#### Q2. Consider the following statements:

1. An ecosystem varies from microscopic size to the largest one comprising whole biosphere.
2. Ecosystem are scale independent.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1          b) Only 2             c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    About the size of ecosystem on scale dimension, an ecosystem varies from microscopic side to the largest one comprising whole biosphere. Ecosystems are hierarchical i.e. these are layer ecosystems comprising smaller ones.

Ecosystems are scale dependent (not independent) meaning that their properties and characteristics everything which can be described about them may be different when we look at them at different scales.

#### Q3. Consider the following statements:

1. Mangrove covers over 0.14% of the geographical area of India.
2. There has been continued decline of mangrove cover in India since 2005.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1             b) Only 2             c) Both 1 and 2            d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    The Ministry of Environment and Forests is at the forefront of conservation and management of mangroves and coral reefs. As per the State of Forest Report 2009, published by Forest Survey of India the mangrove cover in the country is 4, 639 sq. Km which is 0.14% of the country’s total geographical area. Compared with 2008 assessment, there has been an increase of 58 sq. Km in mangrove cover mainly because of the plantation and protection measures in the State of Gujarat, Odisha, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.

#### Q4. Consider the following statements:

1. An ecosystem is a biotic community together with its physical environment considered as an integrated unit.
2. All the living beings in given spatial unit are biotic elements.

Which of the statement given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1             b) Only 2              c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    An ecosystem is a fundamental functional unit of ecological study. An ecosystem is a system ecological system – in which organisms interact with each other and with their environment in a given unit of area and unit time. In other words, an ecosystem is a biotic community together with its physical environment considered as an integrated unit. Implied within their definition is the concept of a structural and functional unit, unified through life processes.

All the plants, animals and microorganisms, in fact all the living beings in a given spatial unit, these are biotic elements.

#### Q5. Consider the following statements:

1. Ecosystem is a closed system.
2. Ecosystem is a functional and structural unit of ecology.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1         b) Only 2             c) Both 1 and 2           d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     B

Explanation:    Ecosystem can be viewed as an open system in which physically chemical and biological process for interactive subsystem exist. This process called as biochemical cycle operate in such a way that the system is kept in relatively stable and dynamic equilibrium. An ecosystem has both spatial dimension (well defined area) and temporal dimension (viewed in a given time period). Thus an ecosystem becomes a functional and structural unit of ecology.

#### Q6. Which of the process form interactive subsystem in an ecosystem?

1. Physical             2. Chemical                 3. Biological

a) Only 1 and 2             b) Only 1 and 3             c) Only 2 and 3            d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Ecosystem can be viewed as open system in which physical, Chemical and biological processes form interactive subsystems. These processes are called as biochemical cycle operating in such a way that the system is kept in relatively stable and dynamic equilibrium.

#### Q7. Consider the following statements:

1. Energy can be considered as third component of the ecosystem.
2. Ecosystem has both spatial dimension and temporal dimension.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1       b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2          d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    An ecosystem is broadly composed of two components, Biome and Habitat. Both these components are integrated by the continuous flow of energy and matter between them. Thus, Energy can be considered as third component of the ecosystem.

The ecosystem has its own productivity. It has both spatial dimension i.e. well defined area and temporal dimension i.e. viewed in a given time period.

#### Q8. Consider the following statements:

1. Synecology is the study of group of species living together as communities in relation to their habitats in a given ecosystem.
2. Antecology is the study of ecological relationship of single species in a given ecosystem.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1        b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2           d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Ecology is studied in two branches First, antecology is the study of ecological relation-ship of single species in a given ecosystem. Second, synecology is the study of group of species living together as communities in relation to their habitats of a given ecosystem. It can be mentioned here that a group of individual organism of the same species in a given area is called a population.

#### Q9. Consider the following statements:

1. Ecology is the study of inter relationship between biotic and a biotic components of a natural ecosystem.
2. Ecology is the study of inter relationship among biotic components.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1             b) Only 2           c) Both 1 and 2          d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans.     C

Explanation:    Ecology is the science which studies the inter-relationship between biotic and abiotic components of a natural ecosystem on one hand and among biotic components on the other. Thus, ecology is the study of inter-relationships and various processes between all organisms and their environments as well as among the organisms themselves.

#### Q10. Consider the following statements:

1. Ecosystems are not hierarchical.
2. The concept of ecology evolved from Darwin’s concept of evolution of species.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1        b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     B

Explanation:    Ecosystems are hierarchical i.e. there are layer ecosystems comprising smaller ones. So an ecosystem can be a leaf or a branch of tree, the whole tree or a forest including microorganisms, insects, birds etc. living there. It can also be a rive and its tributary or even the Western Ghats or Himalayan ecosystem.

The concert of ecology evolved from Darwin’s selection involving interaction between biological species and habitat.

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