Himalai IAS Exclusive “Write 2 or 3 articles per day, become commissioner and District Collector” – Keshav Sir

Topics to Read:

1.Insight – Lander to Mars

2. The Paris Agreement

1.Insight – Lander to Mars :

InSight – Lander to Mars

InSight stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigation, Geodesy and Heat Transportation. It is a Mars lander which will have an in-depth study of the inner space of Mars – its crust, mantle and the core. The study will help us understand the process of formation of the rocky planets of the inner solar system, i,e, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.

The lander shall measure the planet’s vital signs, its pulses, temperature and reflexes which help us understand the process of formation of the terrestrial planets.

The goal of the mission is:

  1. To understand the formation and evolution of Mars
  2. To determine the level of tectonic activity on Mars.

Mini-spacecraft Mars Cube One which is built on CubeSat technology shall follow InSight.

Mars was the choice for the study as it is neither too big nor too small and it shall be close to preserving records of its formation.

What First outer space robotic explorer to study deep interior of Mars.
Launch Date : May 5th 2018

Location :Vandenberg Airforce Base california

Landing date : Nov 26th 2018

Landing site : Elysium Planitia, Mars

Launch vehicle : Atlas V-401

Duration 1 Mars year (~ 2 Earth years)

708 sols (~728 Earth days)

Why / Goals 1.    Understand formation and evolution of Mars.

2.    Determine the level of tectonic activity on Mars.

Launch vehicle ( Atlas V 401) 1.    2 stage rocket

2.    Height : 188 feet

3.    Mass : 333 Tones

4.    Also launched 2 mini spacecrafts “Mars cube one” (MarCO), that follows Insight (1st miniaturized cube satellite technology)

Scientific instruments 1.    Seismometer : (SEIS) Senses seismic waves to study crust.

2.    Heat flow probe : (HP3) burrows deep into Mars to seek heat flowing of Mars.

3.    A radio science experiment : (RISE) measures slitest change in location, to detect orbital movement of Mars.


2 The Paris Agreement :

The Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement came into force on 4th November 2016.

The aim of the agreement is:

  1. To strengthen the world’s response to the threat of climate change
  2. To strengthen the developing countries’ ability to deal with the impacts of the climate change.

The agreement plans to achieve the aim by appropriating the financial flows, new technology framework and enhanced capacity building framework.

The agreement requires the Parties to come ahead with their best efforts through Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and regularly report their emissions and implementation efforts.

In 2018, there shall be a stocktake by all the Parties on the progress and inform their preparation of NDC. Thereafter, there shall be a global stocktake every 5 years to access the collective progress and plan for individual actions by the Parties.

What International treaty to combat climate change and adapt to its effect.
Why / Aims 1.    Aims to control rise in global temperature by keeping global temperature rise of the century below 2° C above the pre industrial levels.

2.    To strengthen abilities of the countries to deal with impact of climate change.

How 1.    All members should put forth their efforts through “ Nationally Determined Contributions “.

2.    Global stock taken every 5 years to assess the progress and to inform further actions.

What is needed 1.    Financial and new technologies flow.

2.    Enhanced capacity building framework.

3.    Support from developing countries

(agreement provides enhanced transparency for action and support).