UPSC NCRET HISTORY NOTES: TOPIC WISE SOLVED MCQ’s

UPSC HISTORY INDIA: The Evolution of Jainism and Buddhism-2

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1) With reference to the events of Buddha’s life, match the following:

Events                                      Places

Buddha’s birth                        1. Lumbini

First sermon                           2. Sarnatha

Buddha’s death                      3. Bodh Gaya

Buddha’s Enlightment             4. Kushinagar

 

Code:   A         B          C          D

a)          2          1          4          3

b)          1          2          4          3

c)          3          4          2          1

d)          4          3          2          1

Ans:     B

Explanation: Buddha was born in 563 B.C. on the Vaishakha Poornima Day at Lumbini in Nepal.

Buddha attained ‘Nirvana’ or ‘Enlightenment’ at 35 at Bodh Gaya in Magadha (Bihar) under the Pipal tree. Buddha delivered the first sermon at Sarnath Where his five disciples had settled. His first sermon is called ‘Dharmachakrapravartan’ or ‘Turnin of the wheel of law.’ Buddha died at Kushinagar in 483 B.C. At the age of 80 in the Malla republic. Hence, the correct answer is option B.

2) With reference to the events of Buddha, match the following:

List I                            List II

  1. Mother                   1. Yasodhara
  2. Father                   2. Suddhodhan
  3. Wife                      3. Rahul
  4. Son                      4. Mayadevi

Code:   A         B          C          D

a)          4          2          1          3

b)          4          3          1          2

c)          1          3          4          2

d)          1          2          4          3

Ans:     A

Explanation:    Buddha was born in 566 B.C. His family name was Fautama who was born in Sakya clan. His father, Suddhodhan, was the king of Sakya republic. His mother was Mayadevi who died after seven days of his birth. At the age of 16, Buddha was married to Yosadhara from whom he had a son, Rahul. Hence, the correct answer is option A.

3) Consider the following statements:

  1. His father was the king of Kosala republic.
  2. Buddha was born in 566 B.C.
  3. Buddha died at the age of 80 in the year 486 B.C.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1 and 2          b) Only 1 and 3                       c) Only 2 and 3                        d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Buddhism was born in 566 B.C. His family name was Gautama who was born in Sakya clan. His father, Suddhodhan, was the king of Sakya republic. Buddha died at the age of 80 in the year 486 B.C. at Kushinagar. After the cremation, the ashes of Buddha were distributed among his followers. These ashes were kept in caskets and stupas were built over them. Hence, the correct answer is option C.

4) Which of the following are among the Four Nobal Truths of Buddha-

  1. The world is full of sorrow
  2. There are causes of sorrow
  3. This sorrow cannot be stopped.
  4. Path leading to cessation of sorrow.

a) Only 1, 2 and 3                        b) Only 1, 2 and 4                        c) Only 1 and 4                        d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     B

Explanation:    The fundamental principla of Buddha’s teachings are represented by the Four Noble Truths (Aryasatyar) viz: i) that the world is full of sorrow (Dukkha), ii) that there are causes of sorrow (Dukkha samuddaya), iii) that this sorrow can be stopped (Dukha nirodha), and iv) path leading to cessation of sorrow (Dukha nirodha gamini-Pratipada). Hence, the correct answer is option B.

5) According to Buddha, which of the following was/were the root of all human misery?

  1. Desire                        2. Knowledge              3. Speech

a) Only 1                        b) Only 1 and 2                       c) Only 3                     d) Only 2 and 3

Ans:     A

Explanation:    According to Buddha root of all human misery was ‘desire’ and its annihilation was the surest way of ending unhappiness. He held that death was no escape from it, as it lead to rebirth and further suffering. One could get out o this chain of suffering and achieve the final salvation (Nirvana) by following the Eight Fold Paths are: i) right speech, ii) right action, iii) right means of livelihood, iv) right exertion, v) right mindfulness, and vi) right meditation vii) right resolution and viii) right view. Hence the correct answer is option A.

6) Which of the following are the similarities between Buddhism and Jainism?

  1. Both derived their basic principles from the Upanishads.
  2. Both did not accept the idea of God.
  3. Both stress on Middle path
  4. Both denied caste.

a) Only 1, 2 and 3                        b) Only 1, 2 and 4       c) Only 3 and 4                        d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     B

Explanation:    Jainism laid great stress upon ascetism and practiced it in a very rigorous manner, where as, Buddha denied it, and asked his disciples to follow the middle path between a life of case and luxury on one hand, and rigorous asceticism on the other. Hence, the correct answer is option B.

7) Consider the following statements:

  1. The women were not admitted in Sangha founded by Buddha.
  2. Buddha died at Bodh Gaya in Majadha (Bihar)
  3. Buddha advocated “The Middle Path”

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1 and 2                        b) Only 1 and 3                       c) Only 2 and 3                        d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     B

Explanation:    The followers of the Buddha fell into two categories: the Upasakas and the Bhikshus (monks). They lived as a commune called Sangha founded by Buddha himself. The women were also admitted in Sangha and were known as Bhikshunis. Buddha preached that man should avoid both extremes, viz, a life of comforts and luxury, and a life of severe asceticism-the middle path was the best.

Buddha died at the age of 80 in the year 486 B.C. at Kushinagar: Buddha attained ‘Nirvana’ or Enlightenment’ at the age of 35 at Bodh Gaya in Magadha (Bihar) under the Pipal tree. Hence, the correct answer is option B.

8) Which of the following statements is correct?

  1. Mahavira was a contemporary of Gautam Buddha.
  2. Both Buddhism and Jainism was founded by Kshatriya
  3. Buddhism accepted the superiority of Brahmans

a) Only 1 and 2                        b) Only 1 and 3                       c) Only 2 and 3                        d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     A

Explanation:    Mahavira was born in about 599 B.C. and attained death in 527 B.C. whereas Buddha was born in 566 B.C. and attained death in 486 B.C. Thus Mahavira was the contemporary of Buddha. Jainism and Byddhism both were founded by Kshatriya. Buddha denied the efficacy of Vedic rituals and practices for the purpose of salvation and the superiority assumed by the Brahmans. Hence, the correct answer is option A.

9) Which is the correct chronological sequence of place in the life of Buddha.

a) Lumbini, Sarnath, Bodh Gaya, Kushinagar

b) Lumbini, Bodh Gaya, Sarnath, Kushinagar

c) Bodh Gaya, Lumbini, Sarnath, Kushinagar

d) Kushinagar, Sarnath, Lumbini, Bodh Gaya

Ans:     B

Explanation:    Buddha was born on the Vaishakha Poornima Day in 566 B.C. at Lumbini (Kapilavastus) in Nepal. He attained ‘Nirvana’ or Enlightenment at the age of 35 at Bodh Gaya in Magadha (Bihar) under the Pipal tree. He delivered the first sermon at Sarnath where his five disciples had settled. Buddha’s first sermon is called ‘Dharmachakrapravartan’ or ‘turning of the wheel of law.’ He attained Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar in 486 B.C. Hence, the correct chronological sequence is option B.

10) Consider the following statements:

  1. The first discourse of Buddha at Deer Park in the Sarnath is called Mahaparinirvana.
  2. The first Buddhist Council was held in the reign of Ashoka.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                        b) Only 2         c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Buddha delivered his first sermon at Sarnath where his five disciples had settled. His first sermon is called ‘Dharmachkrapravartan’ Buddha attained Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar in 486 B.C. at the age of 80 in the Malla republic. The First Buddhist Council was held at Rajgriha, in the reign of Ajatshatra (not Ashoka), under the chairmanship of Mahakassappa