UPSC NCRET HISTORY NOTES: TOPIC WISE SOLVED MCQ’s

UPSC HISTORY INDIA: Fruition of Indian Philosophy

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1) With reference to Indian Philosophical system, consider the following statements:

  1. The Charvaka system believes only in materialism.
  2. The Charvaka system does not believe in soul

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    The Charvaka system (also called Lokayata) believes only in materialism. The physical body composed of material elements in the  only essence of man. Death only is the end of man; and enjoyment of pleasures are only objects in life. There is no life beyond death, no heaven or hell, no ‘Law of Karm’, and no re-bith. This system does not believe in soul, god, or any other life beyond the present one. Hence, the correct answer is option C.

2) With reference to the yoga system of Philosophy, match the following.

List I                                        List II

  1. Niyama                     1. Control of breath
  2. Pranayama               2. Observance
  3. Pratyahara                3. Steadying the mind
  4. Dharana                    4. Restrain

Code:   A         B          C          D

a)        1          2          3          4

b)        2          1          4          3

c)        2          1          4          3

d)        1          2          4          3

Ans:     B

Explanation:    Niyama, means, complete and regular observance of five moral values which are purity, contentment, austerity, study of Vedas and devotion to God.

Pranayama, means, the control of breath at will. Pratayahara, means, restrain, in this sense organs are trained in such a way that they do not take notice of their own perceptions and feelings. Dharana, means, concentrating the mind on a single object such as tip of the nose or a sacred symbol. Hence, the correct answer is option B.

3) Consider the following statements:

  1. The Mimamsa System does not recognize the Vedas as the final authority in determining the duties of man.
  2. The Mimamsa system recognizes two paths of salvation.

Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    The Mimamsa system recognizes the Vedas as the final authority in determining the duties of man, and the vedantists in gaining the true knowledge about man and universe. It recognizes two paths of salvation. One is concerned with the Karmakanda (ritualism) and other with the Jnanakanda (pursuit of knowledge) of the Vedas. Hence, the correct answer is option A.

4) Consider the following statements:

  1. The Vaisesika system is a realistic, analytic and objective philosophy of the world.
  2. The Vaisesika System Postulates a dualism of the matter and soul.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2         c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    The Vaisesika system is a realistic, analytic and objective philosophy of the world. It tries to distinguish between the various kinds of ultimate things and the classify all the objects under five elements-Earth, Water, Air, Fire, and Ether existing in the form of Atom, Time, Space, Mind and Self. Veisesika system postulates a dualism of the matter and soul and declares that salvation depends on fully recognizing the atomic nature of the universe, and its difference with the soul.  Hence, the correct answer is option C.

5) Consider the following statements:

  1. The Samkhya system teaches the existence of twenty-five basic principles.
  2. This system believes that it is from God, universe is evolved.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    The Samkhya system teaches the existence of twenty-five basic principles (tattva). Of these twenty five tattvas, first is Prakriti; i.e “matter”. The Samkhya system believes that the evolution of universe is not due to God but due to the inherent nature of the Prakriti. Hence, the correct answer is option A.

6) Consider the following statements:

  1. The ancient Indian thoughts on philosophy reached its peak in the philosophy of Vedanta.
  2. The Vedanta philosophy expanded by Sankara is known as Advaita Vedanta.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    The Ancient Indian thoughts on philosophy reached its peak in the philosophy of Vedanta. Sankara’s commentaries on Upanishads, Brahamasutra and Bhagavada Gita are important for understanding the Vedanta philosophy. Sankara held that all works teach the Ultimate Reality i.e., Brahma is One. The Vedanta philosophy expanded by Sankara is known as Advaita Vedanta. Hence, the correct answer is option C.