UPSC NCERT ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT NOTES: TOPIC WISE SOLVED MCQ’s

UPSC ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Disaster Management-1

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 Today’s Topic: Disaster Management-1

1. Which of the following are non-biodegradable pollutants?

  1. Pesticides
  2. Sewage
  3. Plastics
  4. Radioactive substances

a) Only 1 and 2                        b) Only 2 and 3                       c) Only 1, 3 and 4                    d) Only 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     C

Explanation:    The pollutants which are not degraded by microbes or degrade at a very slow rate, are known as non-biodegradable pollutants e.g. glass, plastics, radioactive substances, pesticides, etc.

The pollutants which can be degrade by biological or microbial actions are known as biodegradable pollutants e.g. sewage, domestic garbage etc.

2. Which of the following are promary pollutans?

1. Carbon dioxide

2. Sulphur dioxide

3. Peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN)

a) Only 1 and 2                        b) Only 1 and 3                       c) Only 2 and 3                        d) None

Ans:     A

Explanation:    The pollutants which are directly introduced by their sources into the environment are known as primary pollutants e.g. Carbon dioxide, Sulphur dioxide.

The pollutants which are formed from the chemical reaction of primary pollutants in the environment are known as secondary pollutants. E.g. Peroxy acetylnitrate (PAN).

3. Which of the following are qualitative pollutants?

1. Pesticides         2. Merbicides         3. Carbon dioxide          4. Nitrogen oxide

a) Only 1 and 2                        b) Only 2 and 3                       c) Only 3 and 4                        d) None

Ans:     A

Explanation:    Qualitative pollutants do not exist in environment. They are introduced into the environment through man’s activities, e.g. pesticides (DDT), chemical fertilizers, herbicides, etc.

Quantitative pollutants exist in nature but when their concentration or quantity increases up to a critical level then they act as pollutants e.g. Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen oxide, etc.

4. Consider the following statements:

  1. The pollutants which are directly introduced by their sources into the environment are known as primary pollutants.
  2. The substances exist in nature and when their concentration is increased up to a critical level, so that they act as pollutants are called Qualitative pollutants.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    The pollutants which are directly introduced by their source into the environment are known as primary pollutants e.g. Carbon dioxide (CO2), Sulphur dioxide (SO2).

Quantitative pollutants are substances exist in nature but when their concentration or quantity increases up to a critical level then they act as pollutants e.g. Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen oxide, etc.

5. Consider the following statements:

  1. The pollutants which can be degraded by biological or microbial actions are known as biodegradable pollutants.
  2. Qualitative pollutants are introduced into the environment through man’s activities.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    The pollutants which can be degraded by biological or microbal actions are known as biodegradable pollutants, e.g. sewage, domestic garbage etc.

Qualitative pollutants do not exist in environment. They are introduced into the environment through man’s activities, eg. Pesticide (DDT), chemical fertilizers, herbicides, etc.

6. Which of the following are biodegradable pollutants?

1. Sewage

2. Domestic garbage

3. Glass

4. Plastics

a) Only 1 and 2             b) Only 1, 2 and 3                   c) Only 3 and 4                        d) None

Ans:     A

Explanation:    Biodegradable pollutants are pollutants which can be degraded by biological or microbial actions e.g. sewage, domestic garbage etc.

Non-biodegradable pollutants are pollutants which are not degrade by microbes or degrade at a very slow rate e.g. glass, plastics, radioactive substances, pesticides, etc.

7. Which of the following are Quantitative pollutants?

  1. Pesticides 2. Carbon dioxide 3. Chemical fertilizers  4. Nitrogen oxide
  2. a) Only 1 and 2                        b) Only 2 and 3                       c) Only 2 and 4                        d) Only 1, 3 and 4

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Quantitative pollutants are substance exist in nature but when their concentration or quantity increases up to a critical level then they act as pollutants e.g. Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen oxide, etc.

Qualitative pollutants do not exist in environment. They are introduced into the environment through man’s activities, e.g. pesticide (DDT), chemical fertilizers, herbicides, etc.

8. Consider the following statements:

  1. Leakage in nuclear reactors causes environmental pollution.
  2. Noise pollution is defined as an unwanted sound that is an irritant and source of stress.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Nuclear fuels in atomic reactors produce pollution. The disposal f radioactive wastes cause pollution. The high level products of nuclear wastes remain in the environment for several hundred years. Leakage in nuclear reactors causes environmental pollution. The leakage may result in the death of a number of people as happened at Chernobyl Atomic Reactor in the erstwhile USSR on 26 April, 1986.

Noise pollution is defined as an unwanted sound that is an irritant and a source of stress.

9. Which of the following are adverse physiological effects of noise pollution on human being?

  1. Impairment of night vision                    2. Dizziness                    3. Gastric ulcers

a) Only 1 and 2                        b) Only 1 and 3                       c) Only 2 and 3                        d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans.     D

Noise pollution has physiological adverse effects on human well-being. Some of these effects are:

  1. Increase in the rate of heart beat, heart palpitation.
  2. Gastric ulcers and digestive spasms through anxiety.
  3. Impairment of night vision.
  4. Migraine headaches, nausea, dizziness, nervous breakdown, pupil dilation.

10. Which of the following are the sources of Carbon Monoxide?

1. Gasoline engine         2. Cigarette smoke         3. Automobiles

a) Only 1 and 2                        b) Only 1 and 3                       c) Only 2 and 3                        d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans.     D

Explanation:    Carbon monoxide is discharged from gasoline engines. It is also present in cigarette smoke. Large amounts of carbon monoxide fumes are released into the atmosphere by internal combustion from million o automobiles in urban areas. Carbon monoxide is also produced in large quantities in thermal power plant as a result of burning of coal.

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