UPSC NCERT ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT NOTES: TOPIC WISE SOLVED MCQ’s

UPSC ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Animal Community-1

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Today’s Topic: Animal Community-1

  1. Which of the following factors affect the is tribution of plan

1. Climatic factors                   2. Edaphic factors                             3. Biotic factors                       4. Physical factors

a) Only 1 and 2                        b) Only 2 and 4                       c) Only 1, 2 and 3        d) Only 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans.     C

Explanation:    The distribution of plants is affected and controlled by a variety of factors. There are:

(i) Climatic factors: Sunlight, temperature, moisture and humidity, precipitation etc.

(ii) Edaphic factors: Soil nutrients, soil texture, soil structure, acidity, and alkalinity, etc.

(iii) Biotic factors: Effects of living organisms on plants, interactions between different plant species and between plants and animals like natural selection, competition, mutualism, etc.

(iv) Physical factors: Reliefs and topography, slope angle, gradient and slope aspect, etc.

2. Which of the following are the characteristics of plant community?

  1. It consists of two or more different species of plants.
  2. The plant species are capable of growing together in a particular physical habitat which they inhabit.
  3. It does not have a well-defined composition and structure.

a) Only 1 and 2                        b) Only 1 and 3                       c) Only 2 and 3                        d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     A

Following are the characteristics of plant community:

(i) It consists of two or more different species of plants.

(ii) The plant species of plant community are capable of growing together in a particular physical habitat which they inhabit and thus different members of a plant community are ecological interrelated.

(iii) A plant community has a well-defined composition and structure which are attained over time through the interactions between different plant species and between plant and their physical environment.

(iv) It represents the ecological conditions of a region or an area of physical habitat.

3. Consider the following statements:

  1. Mosses and farms are seiophytes plants.
  2. Photoperiodism is used by many plants as a stimulus in the timing of daily and seasonal rhythms.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1         b) Only 2         c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Seiophytes are shade loving plants, which tolerate, and perform best at low intensity. They have a lower compensation point and higher chlorophyll on tent than helophytes. Mosses and ferns are typically sciophytes plants.

Thaw seasonal variations in the length of daylight are called as photoperiodism. Photoperiodism is used by many plants as a stimulus in the timing of daily and seasonal rhythms, such as the daily opening and closing of leaves, or the seasonal leaf-fall of deciduous trees.

4. Consider the following statements:

  1. Seiophytesare shade-loving plants.
  2. They have lower chlorophyll content than helophytes.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1         b) Only 2         c) Both 1 and 2              d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    Seiophytes (or sciophytes) are shade loving plants, which tolerate, and perform best at low intensity. They have a lower compensation point and higher chlorophyll content than heliophytes. Mosses and ferns are typically sciophytes plants.

5. Consider the following statements:

  1. The heliophytes are the sun-loving plants.
  2. They have a low compensation point.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     a) The heliophytes are the sun-loving plants, which require full sun for their growth. They have a high compensation point, and include most trees, many grasses and the majority of arable crop plants.

6. Consider the following statements:

  1. The saturation point is the light intensity at which respiration is balanced by gains from photosynthesis.
  2. Compensation point is the light intensity at which photosynthesis attains the maximum rates.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Compensation point is the light intensity at which respiration is balanced by gains from photosynthesis. Above this point, any increase in light intensity produces a surplus of sugars which can be used for growth. The saturation point is the light intensity at which photosynthesis attains the maximum rates.

7. Mangroves and swamp rice, belong to which group of plants?

a) Hygrophytes             b) Xerophytes              c) Mesophytes             d) Tropophytes

Ans:     A

Explanation:    Hygrophytes are moisture-loving plants that live either in water or in extremely damp and humid regions. Hygrophytes include water hyacinths, mangroves, swamp rice, banana, and tropical rain forests.

8. Cacti and euphorbia belong to which group of plants

a) Hygrophytes             b) Xerophytes              c) Mesophytes             d) Tropophytes

Ans:     B

Explanation:    Xerophytes are adapted to living under conditions of drought, and include cacti, euphorbia’s and other desert plants. Vegetation capable of withstanding prolonged dry, hot seasons, like that of the Mediterranean climatic regions is also the Xerophilous type.

9. Match the following:

List-I                            List-II

  1. Hydrophytes           1. These plants normally grow in moist but not wet conditions.
  2. Xerophytes             2. These plants grow in areas of alternating wet and dry conditions.
  3. Mesophytes            3. They are adapted to living under conditions of drought
  4. Tropophytes           4. These plants live either in water in extremely damp and humid regions.

Code:

A         B          C          D

a) 4       3          1          2

b) 3       4          2          1

c) 1        2          3          4

d) 2        1          4          3

Ans.     A Hygrophytes are moisture-loving plants that live either in water or in extremely damp and humid regions.

Xerophytes are adapted to living under conditions of drought and include act, euphorbia and other desert plants.

Mesophytes normally grow in moist but not wet conditions, and they can withstand drought for limited periods.

Tropophytes grow in areas of alternating wet and dry conditions. These are adapted well to the seasonal changes in rainfall.

10. Consider the following statements:

  1. Lichens are made up of an aigae and a fungus.
  2. Mushrooms and toad stoods are called the “fruiting bodies” of fungi.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Lichens are made up of algae and a fungus. They live in partnership. The single-celled algae are enclosed in a fungus.

Mushrooms, molds and yeast are forms of fungi. Mushrooms and toadstools are called the “fruiting bodies” of a fund. Thousands of thread-like cells remain embedded in the soil or trunks of trees. These are called mycelium. When the fungus is ready to produce spores, the fruiting body appears on top of the ground. When the mushroom matures, it disperses the spores.

 

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