Chapter Wise India and the World Geography MCQ’s With Explanation

Today’s Topic:SOILS-2

These are most-important and most-expected Questions for IAS Prelims General Studies paper-1 (Indian and the World Geography) of UPSC Civil Service exam.

 Every day Himalai is coming with different subjects questions and answers with explanation analysis, these Questions will be both theoretical and fact based. Every day preparation will make a way for success, keep up your daily IAS Exam preparation with Himalai subject wise, chapter wise and topic wise Mcq’s with answers and analysis. We are providing our daily program list so that aspirant can note it and keep a watch on Himalai Mock test blogs for updated questions and get prepare for the Exam.

EveryDay Program List

Sunday- Indian and world Geography

Monday-General issues on Environmental Ecology, bio-diversity and Climate Change

Tuesday- General Science

Wednesday- Indian Polity and Governance

Thursday- History of India and Indian National Movement

Friday- Economic and Social Development

Saturday-Current Affairs Concepts

 

Today’s Topic:SOILS-2

Q1. Consider the following statements:

  1. Mountain soils are deposition of organic materials derived from vegetative cover.
  2. Mountain soils are heterogenous in nature, and vary from place to place.

a) Only 1        b) Only 2            c) Both 1 and 2          d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     (c)

Explanation:     [Mountain soils are found in mountainous regions of India, particularly in Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, eastern ranges, Uttarkhand, Himachal Pradesh, and Jammu and Kashmir. They are characterised by deposition of organic materials derived from vegetative cover. The soils are heterogenous in nature, and vary from place to place. In the shiwalik hills, the soils are shallow and immature, containing large proportion of decomposed mineral grains. They are sndy with gravel and porous. Hence, the correct answer is option c)]

Q2. Which of the following statements are correct?

  1. Black soils are most typical of the Deccan trap (Basalt) region spread over north-west Deccan Plateau.
  2. The black-soils are made of extremely fine i.e. Clayey material.
  3. Black soils can not hold moisture.

a) Only 1 and 2          b) Only 1 and 3           c) Only 2 and 3             d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     (a)

Explanation:     [Black soils have been developed by the weathering of the Deccan lava in major parts of Maharashtra, western Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. In general Black soils have clay texture, average clay content being 50% and the range being 40-50%. Except in cases where there is stratification, the clay content down the profile is uniform. Black soils are well known for their capaicty to hold moisture. Hence, the correct answer is option a)]

Q3. Consider the following statements:

  1. Khadar is new alluvium found close to the river.
  2. Khadar is clayey and dark in colour.

Ans:     (a)

Explanation:     [Alluvial soils are found over large parts of India. They are confined mainly, to the northern plains, coastal strips and Chhattisgarh basin. These soils are generally of two types – khadar and bhangar. Khadar is newer alluvium found close to rivers, while the bhangar is older alluvium, found away from the rivers. The khadar is sandy and light in colour, while the bhangar is clayey and dark. Fertility of soils varies from place to place. But they are normally very fertile. Hence, the correct answer is option a)]

Q4. Consider the following statements:

  1. Bhangar is older alluvium found away from the rivers.
  2. Bhangar is clayey and dark to colour.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1             b) Only 2             c) Both 1 and 2           d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     (c)

Explanation:     [Alluvial soil is the most important and widespread soil. It covers forty percent of the land area. In fact the entire northern plains are made up of these soils. These soils are generally of two types – khadar and Bhangar. The older alluvium, locally known as bhangar, is found away from the rivrs. It is clayey and dark in colour. Bhangar often contains kankar nodules, with calcium carbonates in sub-soil. Hence, the correct answer is option c) X]

Q5. Which of the following soils are the characteristic of the arid and semi-arid condition?

a) Alluvial Soils           b) Laterite Soils            c) Red Soils             d) Desert Soils

Ans:     (d)

Explanation:     [Desert soils are the characterisic of the arid and semi – arid conditions. They are found largely in arid areas of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. Hence, the correct answer is option d)]

Q6. Consider the following statements:

  1. The mountain soils include peat, meadow, forest and hill soils.
  2. The forest soils can be described as soils in making.
  3. Conservation of soil is necessary to ensure sustaine dproductiity of land.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1 and 2          b) Only 1 and 3            c) Only 2 and 3             d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     (d)

Explanation:     [Mountain soils are characterised by deposition of organic materials derived from vegetative cover. They include peat, meadow, forest and hill soils. Forest soils occur between 3000 m and 3100 m in the coniferous forest zone of the Himalaya. Here the ground is covered with forest litter. The soils below the litter is black in colour containing a lot of decomposed organic matter. There soils can be described as soils in making. For sustained productivity of land, it is very necessary to conserveour soil resources. Hence, the correct answer is option d) X]

Q7. Which of the following are the places where alluvial soils are found in India?

  1. Northern Plains
  2. Western coastal Plains
  3. Eastern Coastal Plains
  4. Deltas of Mahanadi and Godavari 5. Deccan Plateau.

a) 1, 2, 3 and 4        b) 1, 3 and 4               c) 2, 4 and 5           d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Ans:     (b)

Explanation:     [In western coastal plains red and laterite soils are found. In Deccan plateau black soil is found. Hence, the correct answer is option b)]

Q8. The soil be conserved by:

  1. Improved agricultural practices.
  2. Afforestation
  3. Overgrazing

a) Only 1 and 2           b) Only 1 and 3                 c) Only 2 and 3             d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     (a)

Explanation:     [Soil conservation includes al such measures which protect the soils from erosion and restore its fertility. Some of the measures of soil conservatin are afforestation, improved agricultural pratices, reducing pressure of grazing, control of floods, restroraion of lang fallows, shifting cultivation, reclamation of alkaline soils an dpopularising the use of cowdung an dvgetation for soil manuring. Hence, the correct answer is option a) ]

Q9. Which one of the following statements is not correct?

a) Alluvial soils cover about 40 percent of the land area of India.

b) Northern plains of India are made up of alluvial soils.

c) Alluvial soils is a whole are very fertile.

d) Alluvial soils are deficient in potash and lime.

Ans:     (d)

Explanation:     [Alluvial soil is the most important and widespread. It covers about 40 percent of land area of India. In fact the entire Northern plains are made up of these soils. They have been brought down and deposited by Himalayan rivers. They are very fertile. Generally, they contain adequate potash, phosphoric acid and lime. However, they are deficient in organic an dnitrogenous content. Soils in the drier areas are more alkaline. Alluvial soils support more than half of the Indian population. Hence, the correct answer is option d)]

Q10. Consider the following statements:

  1. The old alluvium is more fertile than new alluvium.
  2. Alluvial soils are deficient in organic and nitrogenous content.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1         b) Only 2           c) Both 1 and 2           d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     (b)

Explanation:     [Alluvial soils are gnerally of two types – khanar and bhangar. Khadar is newer alluvium, found close to reivers, while bangar is older alluvium found away from rivers. The old alluvium often contains kankar nodules, with calcium carbonates in sub – soil. The new alluvium is more fertile than the old. Alluvial soils as a whole are very fertile. Generally, they contain adequate potash, phosphoric acid and lime. However they are deficient in organic and nitrogenous content. Hence, the correct answer is option b)]

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