Chapter Wise Ecology & Environment
MCQ’s With Explanation

Today’s Topic: Sustainable Development

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Saturday-Current Affairs Concepts

Today’s Topic: Sustainable Development

Q1. Consider the following statements:

  1. Climate change and natural disasters pose a key challenge to sustainable development.
  2. Climate change has implications on agricultural production, agriculture dependent livelihood and food.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1         b) Only 2         c) Both 1 and 2           d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Climate change and natural disaster present a key challenge to sustainable development. Different ecological and climatic zones in India have made it differentially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These impacts range from changes in temperature, precipitation, and humidity to increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme events like floods and droughts. Changes in climatic conditions can have serious implications on agricultural production, agriculture dependent livelihood and food.

Q2. Consider the following statements:

  1. India’ imports about 70 percent of its oil.
  2. India’s dependence on oil imports is expected to fall to about 50 by the year 2030.

Which of the statements given above is /are correct?

a) Only 1         b) Only 2         c) Both 1 and 2            d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    India’s reliance on coal for more than half of its power needs is an issue of great concern for energy security. The country is relatively poor in oil and gas reserves and due to stagnating domestic crude production, India’ imports approximately 70 percent of its oil. India’s dependence on oil imports is expected to grow so approximately 90 percent by the year 2030.

Q3. Which of the following are air pollutants?

  1. PM 10              2. PM 2.5             3. Benzopyrene                4. Nickel            5. NH3

a) Only 1, 2 and 3             b) Only 1, 2, 4 and 5                c) Only 2, 3, 4 and 5            d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Increased vehicular fleet, industrial expansion, persistence of older vehicular and technology, and lack of effective regulatory enforcement have contributed towards rising pollution levels in almost all Indian cities. In 1982, National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were notified, which was duly revised in 1994. These were revisited and revised in November 2009 for 12 pollutants, which include SO2, NO2, PH 10, PM 2.5, Ozone, Lead, CO, NH3, Benzene, Arsenic, Benzopyrene and Nickel.

Q4. Consider the following statements:

  1. India viewed the concept of Green Economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication.
  2. Green Economy is one of the means to achieve sustainable development.

Which of the statements given above is /are correct?

a) Only 1         b) Only 2         c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    There is no agreed definition of Green Economy. India has viewed the concept of Green Economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication which was one of the themes of Rio + 20. Green Economy is one of the means to achieve sustainable development. The concept should not lead to any form of green protectionism, imposition of conditionality or any intrusion in the domestic policy space.

Q5. Consider the following statements:

  1. The growing transport demand in India raises several issues of concern around energy security and environmental quality.
  2. Government of India has undertaken various initiatives to promote sustainability in transport sector.

Which of the statements given above is /are correct?

a) Only 1            b) Only 2             c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    The growing transport demand in India accompanied by massive urbanization, increasing vehicular density and growing consumption of energy raises several issues of concern around energy security and environmental quality. Government has undertaken various initiatives to promote sustainability in transport sector. These initiatives include the National Urban Transport Policy, National Highway Development Project, and implementation of strict emission norms and development of vehicle efficiency standards.

Q6. Consider the following statements:

  1. E-waste is a collective terminology for the entire electronic equipment such as TVs, refrigerators, etc. That has reached its end of life.
  2. Changing lifestyles, increase in economic status and activities increased generation of e-waste.

Which of the statements given above is /are correct?

a) Only 1             b) Only 2           c) Both 1 and 2          d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    E-waste is a collective terminology for the entire stream of electronic equipment such as TVs, refrigerators, air conditioners etc. that has reached its end of life for its current users. Such devices are generally considered toxic when disassembled or incinerated and are typically targeted for hazardous disposal or are stated for recovery and reuse. Changing lifestyles, increase in economic status and activities, has resulted in increased generation of e-waste, which is negatively affecting India’s ecological system and pozing a significant challenge to sustainable development.

Q7. Consider the following statements:

  1. The term ‘sustainable development’ was first introduced by World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED)
  2. World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) was held in the year 1985.

Which of the statements given above is /are correct?

a) Only 1           b) Only 2         c) Both 1 and 2           d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    The term ‘sustainable development’ was first introduced in 1987 (not 1985) by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), which was chartered by the UN to examine the critical social and environmental problems on the planet and to formulate realistic proposals to solve them in ways that ensure human progress without bankrupting the resources of future generations.

Q8. Consider the following statements:

  1. World Commission on Environment and Development held in 1987 was chaired by MS. Gro Harlem Brundland.
  2. MS. Gro Harlem Brundland was the Prime Minister of Denmark.

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    The term ‘sustainable development was first introduced in 1987 by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), chartered by UN. WCED was chaired by Ms. Gro Harlem Brundland, the Prime Minister of Norway (not Denmark). In its report, entitled “Our Common Future”, released in 1987, the WCED defines sustainable development as, “a dynamic process designed to meet today’s needs without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs”.

Q9. Which of the following defines sustainable development as, “a dynamic process designed to meet today’s needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”?

a) Brundland Commission

b) World Bank

c) UN Conference on Human Environment (UNCHE)

d) None of the above

Ans:     A

Explanation:    World Commission on Environment and Development (WCE            D) held in 1987, for the first time introduced the term ‘sustainable development’. This commission was chaired by Ms. Gro Harlem Brundtland, the Prime Minister of Norway, and hence came to be called as the Brundtland Commission. In its report, entitled “Our Common Future”, released in 1987, the Brundtland Commission defines sustainable development as, “a dynamic process designed to meet today’s needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”

Q10. Consider the following statements:

  1. Sustainable development emphasizes equity among different peoples and nations of the world, and equity between one generation and the other.
  2. Sustainable development is based on non-renewable resources.

Which of the statements given above is /are correct?

a) Only 1         b) Only 2         c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    The Brundtland report states that, “We must make sure that the poor and powerless will get their fair share of the resources required to sustain growth. “Equity applies not only to relationships between to First and the Third Worlds, but also within countries between people. Thus, sustainable development emphasizes equity among different peoples and nations of the world, and equity between one generation and the other. Sustainable development use renewable resources and attempts to substitute them where ever possible.

 

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