Chapter Wise Ecology & Environment MCQ’s With Explanation

Today’s Topic: Sustainable Development-2

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Today’s Topic: Sustainable Development-2

Q1. Consider the following statements:

  1. Sustainable development maximizes resource use and the rate of resource depletion.
  2. Unsustainable development recognizes that resources are finite.

Which of the statements given above is /are correct?

a) Only 1          b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     D

Explanation:     Unsustainable development is based on the idea of ‘infinite’ resources, and it maximizes resource use and the rate of resource depletion. On the other hand, sustainable development recognizes that resources are ‘finite’ and that the rate of depletion must be slowed down in order to have growth in the long-term.

Q2. Which of the following are the objectives of Sustainable Development?

  1. Reviving growth.
  2. Changing the quality of growth.
  3. Reorienting technology and managing risk.

a) Only 1 and 2             b) Only 1 and 3             b) Both 2 and 3             d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     D

Explanation:     According to the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) report, the critical objectives for environment and development policies that follow from the concept of sustainable development include:

(i) Reviving growth;

(ii) Changing the quality of growth;

(iii) Meeting essential needs for jobs, food, energy, water and sanitation;

(iv) Conserving and enhancing the resource base;

(v) Reorienting technology and managing risk; and

(vi) Merging environment an economies in decision-making.

Q3. “The area of land and water required to support a defined economy of human population at a specified standard of living indefinitely using prevailing technology”, means:

a) Recycling             b) Ecological deficit                 c) Ecological footprint              d) None o the above

Ans:     C

Explanation:     The area of land and water required to support a defined economy or human population at a specified standard of living indefinitely, using prevailing technology means ecological footprint. It is a measure of human demand on the Earth’s ecosystems. It represents the amount of biologically productive land and sea area necessary to supply the resources a human population consumes, and to assimilate associated wastes.

Q4. Which of the following refers to “The process by which atmospheric carbon is absorbed into carbon silikas”.

a) Carrying capacity       b) Carbon sequestration       c) Ecological footprint       d) None of the above

Ans:     B

Explanation:     Carbon sequestration refers to the process by which atmospheric carbon is absorbed into carbon silikas. It describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid dangerous climate change. It has been proposed as a way to slow the atmospheric and marine accumulation of greenhouse gases which released by burning fossil fuels.

Q5. Which of the following represents, “the effect of human activities on the climate in terms of the total amount of greenhouse gases produced”?

a) Carbon footprint           b) Carrying capacity         c) Biotic            d) None of the above

Ans:     A

Explanation:     Carbon footprint represents the effect human activities have on the climate in terms of the total amount of greenhouses gases produced. Greenhouse gases can be emitted through transport, land clearance, and the production and consumption of food, fuels, manufactured goods, materials, wood, roads, buildings, and services.

Q6. “The amount by which the ecological footprint of a country or a region exceeds the biological capacity of the space available, “means :

a) Ecosystem             b) Ecological deficit                 c) Carrying capacity     d) None of the above

Ans:     B

Explanation:     The amount by which the ecological footprint of a country or a region exceeds the biological capacity of the space available means ecological deficit.

Carrying capacity means that the total population an area is able to support given the quality of the natural environment and the prevailing technology available.

Ecosystem is defined as a particular category of physical systems, connecting of organisms and inorganic components in a relatively stable equilibrium, and of various sizes and kinds.

Q7. Which of the following means that “the total population an area is able to support given the quality of the natural environment and the prevailing technology available”?

a) Ecological deficit             b) Carrying capacity     c) Carbon sequestration    d) None of the above

Ans:     B

Explanation:     Carrying capacity means that the total population an area is able to support given the quality of the natural environment and the prevailing technology available. It is the population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely given the food, habitat, water and other necessities available in the environment. In population biology, carrying capacity is defined as the environment’s maximum load which is different from the concept of population equilibrium.

Q8. Which of the following transitions are essential to achieve sustainable development?

  1. Demographic      2. Energy        3. Resource      4. Economic     5. Political

a) Only 1, 2 and 3         b) Only 2, 3 and 4         c) Only 1, 4 and 5         d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Ans:     D

Explanation:     Following transitions are essential to achieve sustainable development:

(i) Demographic transition: A transition to a stable world population of low birth and death rates is a critical requirement for achieving sustainable development.

(ii) Energy transition: This involves a transition to high efficiency in production and use, coupled with greater reliance on renewable energy sources.

(iii) Resource transition : A transition to reliance on nature’s income without depleting its capital.

(iv) Economic transition : In order to address the issue of equity, a new economic system with broader and equitable sharing of the benefits of development needs to be adopted.

(v) Political transition : The political system must change to one that encourages global negotiation and broader participation.

Q9. With reference to the sustainable development, which of the following are included in the “Triple bottom line” concept?

  1. Economic prosperity 2. Population stability 3. Environment quality     4. Social equity

a) Only 1, 2 and 3         b) Only 1, 3 and 4         c) Only 1, 2 and 4         d) Only 2, 3 and 4

Ans.     B

Explanation:     According to the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, “Sustainable development involves the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental quality and social equality, companies aiming for sustainability need to perform not against a single financial bottom line but against this triple bottom line.”

Q10. Which reference to Rotterdam Convention consider the following statements:

  1. It is a multilateral treaty to promote shared responsibilities in relation to import of hazardous chemicals.
  2. India has not ratified this convention.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                      b) Only 2                      c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:     Rotterdam Convention on the prior informed consent procedure for certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade was signed in 1998 and became effective from 2004. It is a multilateral to treaty to promote shared responsibilities in relation to import of hazardous chemicals. The convention promotes open exchange of information and calls on exporters of hazardous; chemicals to use proper labeling, and inform purchasers of any known restrictions or bans. India ratified the convention in 2006.

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