Chapter Wise Ecology & Environment MCQ’s With Explanation

Today’s Topic: Population, Biotic Community and Succession – 2

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Today’s Topic: Population, Biotic Community and Succession – 2

Q1. Consider the following statements:

  1. Snapdragon flower has lip-like petals to facilitate insect entry and landing.
  2. Cuckoo lays eggs in the nests of other birds.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                   c) Both 1 and 2                   d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Plants and animals have well-established interdependence for reproduction. Flowers may be insect-specific Snapdragon flower, for example, has lip-like petals to facilitate insect entry and landing. The interdependence in the community can be further demonstrated with the example of cuckoo laying eggs in the nest of other birds, and gall wasps embedding their eggs deep into the tissues of plants to ensure hatching and protection.

Q2. Match the following:

List-I                            List-II

A.Mutualism             1. One organism is benefitted while the other is not affected

B.Commensalism     2. Both organisms suffer adverse effects.

C.Competition          3. Both organisms are benefited.

Code:

A         B          C

a) 1        2           3

b) 3        1           2

c) 3        2           1

d) 2        1           3

Ans:     B

(An association of two species, in which both species are benefited, is called mutualism. Commensalism is a relationship between two species where one species is benefited, while the other neither gets any benefit nor is adversely affected under normal conditions. The interaction between two species, where both suffer adverse effects, is known as competition.

Q3. Consider the following statements:

  1. Symbiosis is a condition in which there is a close physical association between the individuals of a pair of species.
  2. Mutualism can only be obligate and not facultative.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                  b) Only 2                  c) Both 1 and 2                   d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    The condition in which there is a close physical association between the individuals of a pair of species is called symbiosis. An association of two species, in which both species are benefited is called mutualism. Mutualism is a functional association, not merely living together.Mutualism may be obligate (Species are completely dependent upon each other) or facultative (one species may survive even in the absence of the other partner species).

Q4. Consider the following statements:

  1. Mutualism is exemplified by the nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
  2. Algae and fungi exhibit mutually beneficial relationship in lichens.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                  b) Only 2                  c) Both 1 and 2                  d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Mutualism is exemplified by the nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Rhizobium) living in the root nodules of legumes, where the bacteria, deriving nutrition from the host plant, fix atmospheric nitrogen and make it available to the plants. Algae and fungi exhibit mutually beneficial relationship in lichens. The fungi provide protection to algae, and the latter prepares food for the fungi.

Q5. Consider the following statements:

  1. In coral reef, coelenterates and algae live in facultative relationship.
  2. Mycorrhizae are a mutualistic relationship between fungi and roots of about 80 percent of higher plants.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                  b) Only 2                  c) Both 1 and 2                   d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     B

Explanation:    In coral reef, coelenterates and algae live in obligate (not facultative) relationship. Mycorrhizae are a mutualistic relationship between fungi and roots of about 80 percent of higher plants. The fungus helps in mineral nutrition of the plants in mineral nutrition of the plants with which they are associated and obtains, in turn, carbohydrates from plants Bacteria in the gut of some animals (cattle) help in cellulose digestion.

Q6. Consider the following statements:

  1. Sea anemone has the facultative mutualism with a hermit crab.
  2. Sea anemone has protocol-operation type of mutualism with hermit crab.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                  b) Only 2                  c) Both 1 and 2                   d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     c) Sea anemone gets attached to the shell of a hermit crab. The sea anemone grows on the back of the crab, providing camouflage and protection and intern the sea anemone is transported for reaching new food sources sharing facultative mutualism. This type of mutualism is also called protocol-operation.

Q7. Consider the following statements:

  1. Suckerfish and shark show a commensalism relationship.
  2. Epiphyta grow on trees benefit from better light conditions but generally, they do not harm the tree.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                  b) Only 2                    c) Both 1 and 2                    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Suckerfish and sharks shows a commensalism relationship. The sucker fish attaches to shark surface with the help of its dorsal fin, which is modified into a hold fast. The sucker fish is dispersed to distant areas with the better food supply. Besides, the fish gets protection from predators due to its association with a shark. However, the shark does not get any benefit from sucker fish and it is also not affected adversely. Epiphytes (e.g. mosses, ferns, orchids, money plant) growing on trees benefit from better light conditions, but generally, they do not harm the tree.

Q8. Match the following:

List-I                                        List-II

  1. Interspecific competition       1. The interaction between species involving billing and Consumption of prey.
  2. Intraspecific competition        2. Species smaller in size lives in or on the layer species.
  3. Predation                               3. It occurs between individuals of two different species occurring in a habitat.
  1. Parasitism                              4. It occurs between individuals of the same species.

Code:

A         B          C          D

a) 3          4          1          2

b) 4          3          1          2

c) 4          3          2          1

d) 3          4          2          1

Ans:     A

Explanation:    Interspecific competition occurs between individuals of two different species occurring in a habitat. On the other hand, intraspecific competition occurs between individuals of the same species. The interaction between species involving billing and consumption of prey is called predation. In the interaction called parasitism, the species smaller in size live in or on the layer species from which it obtains food.

Q9. Which of the following are parasitic plants?

1.Cuscuta                   2. Loranthus Viscum                   3. Rafflesia

a) Only 1 and 2                    b) Only 1 and 3                    c) Only 2 and 3                   d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     D

Explanation:    In the interaction called parasitism, the species smaller in size (the parasite) lives in or on the layer species (host) from which it obtains food. Parasitism also involves shelter, in addition to food obtained by a parasite. Plants like Cuscuta (dodder), Loranthus Viscum and Rafflesia are parasitic plants, which live on other flowering plants.

Q10. With reference to Parasites, consider the following statements:

  1. Leeches, lice, ticks, mites feed on the body fluids of the hosts.
  2. They limit the population of the host species.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                  b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                  d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Parasites like leeches, lice, ticks, mites, feed on the body fluids of the hosts. The hosts also develop defensive mechanisms to protect themselves from the parasites, as in the case of limbless hosts. Parasites may alter the population growth of hosts, shorten the life cycle, weaken the host, and drastically reduce the reproduction to be the extent of causing fertility.

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