Chapter Wise Ecology & Environment MCQ’s With Explanation

Today’s Topic: Pollution and Environment Change

These are most-important and most-expected Questions for IAS Prelims General Studies paper-1 (Ecology and Environment) of UPSC Civil Service exam. Every day Himalai is coming with different subjects questions and answers with explanation analysis, these Questions will be both theoretical and fact-based. Every day preparation will make a way for success, keep up your daily IAS Exam preparation with Himalai subject wise, chapter wise and topic wise Mcq’s with answers and analysis. We are providing our daily program list so that aspirant can note it and keep a watch on Himalai Mock test blogs for updated questions and get prepared for the Exam.

 EveryDay Program List

Monday-General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change

Tuesday- General Science

Wednesday- Indian Polity and Governance

Thursday- History of India and Indian National Movement

Friday- Economic and Social Development

Saturday- Indian and World Geography

Today’s Topic: Pollution and Environment Change

Q1. Which one of the following statements is not correct?

a) Ozone aggravates lung diseases in humans.

b) Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) damages chloroplasts.

c) Benzene and its derivatives are carcinogenic.

d) None of the above.

Ans.     D

Explanation:    Ozone aggravates lung diseases in humans. Ozone, an effective oxidant, corrodes the heritage building surfaces and damages marble statues and other cultural assets. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) damages chloroplasts and thus the photosynthetic efficiency and growth of plants are reduced. Benzene and its derivatives, such as formaldehyde, are carcinogenic (substances that cause cancer).

Q2. Consider the following statements:

  1. Lightning in sky produces Nitrogen oxides (NOx) naturally.
  2. Low pH condition damage soil microbial community.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                  b) Only 2                 c) Both 1 and 2                   d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Volatile organic carbons (VOCs) and Sulphur dioxide (SO2) are produced during the combustion of coal (in the industry) and petroleum (an automobile). Lightning in the sky also produces NOx naturally, These gases are highly reactive in the air.

The pH acid rain is less than 5.6 and could be as low as 4 or below. Most planktons, molluscs, and fry young fish cannot tolerate water having a pH below 5.0. Low pH conditions also damage soil microbial community.

Q3. Which of the following preventive strategies are adapted to control air pollution?

  1. Suitable fuel selection.
  2. Modifications in industrial process to reduce emissions.
  3. Selecting the correct manufacturing site.

a) Only 1 and 2                        b) Only 1 and 3                       c) Only 2 and 3                        d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Important preventive strategies to control air pollution are : (i) Suitable fuel selection (e.g. fuel with low sulphur content) and its efficient utilization to reduce the pollutant level in emission;

(ii) modifications in the industrial process and/or equipment to reduce emissions.

(iii) correct selection of manufacturing site and zoning for the industrial set-up to disperse pollution sources.

Q4. Match the following:

List-I                            List-II

A. Arresters                 1. Used to separate particulate matters from contaminated air.

B.Scrubbers                 2. Used to collect extremely fine particulate matters.

C. Filters                      3. Used to clean air for both dusts and gases by passing In through a dry or wet packing material.

Code:

A         B          C

a) 1         3          2

b) 1         2          3

c) 2         1          3

d) 3        2          1

Ans:     A

Explanation:    Arresters are used ideally to separate particulate maters from contaminated air.

Scrubbers are used to clean air for both dusts and gases by passing it through a dry or wet packing material.

Filters are used to collect extremely fine particulate matters.

Q5. Consider the following statements:

  1. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is the most effective device to remove particulate matters.
  2. Cyclonic separators work on the principle of dust separation by centripetal force.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is the most effective device to remove particulate pollutants. ESP works on the principle of electrical charging of the dust particles and collecting it on a differently charged platform.

Cyclonic separators work on the principle of dust separation by centrifugal force (not centripetal force) and are efficient for coarser dust particles.

Q6. Consider the following statements:

  1. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) works on the principle of electrical charging of the dust particles and collecting it on a differently charged platform.
  2. The scrubber is the most used device for separating particulate matter from the emissions.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                                    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:    Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is the most effective device to remove particulate pollutants. ESP works on the principle of electrical charging of the dust particles and collecting it on a differently charged platform. Both dry and wet type scrubbers are also used for dust separation. However, the scrubber is the least (not most) used the device for separating particulate matters from the emissions, as this device is best suited for the removal of gaseous pollutants.

Q7. Consider the following statements:

  1. Combustion, absorption, and adsorption techniques are used to control gaseous pollutants.
  2. In absorption technique, gaseous pollutants are absorbed in suitable absorbent materials.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1         b) Only 2         c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Combustion, absorption, and adsorption techniques are used to control gaseous pollutants. In combustion, process, oxidizable gaseous pollutants are completely burnt at a high temperature. In absorption technique, gaseous pollutants are absorbed in suitable absorbent materials. Adsorption technique is applied to control toxic gases, vapors and inflammable compounds that could not be efficiently removed or transferred by the aforesaid techniques.

Q8. Consider the following statement:

  1. In the combustion process of controlling gaseous pollutants, oxidizable gaseous pollutants are completely burnt at a high temperature.
  2. Catalytic converter filters in the vehicle can convert NOx to nitrogen reducing potential hazards of NOx.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2         c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Combustion, absorption, and adsorption techniques are used to control gaseous pollutants. In combustion, process, oxidizable gaseous pollutants are completely burnt at high temperature. Petro-chemical, fertilizer, paints and varnish industries use combustion control of gaseous pollutants.

The efficient engine can reduce the unburnt Hydrocarbon in auto emission. Catalytic converter filters in the vehicle can convert NOx to nitrogen, reducing potential hazards.

Q9. Which of the following industries use combustion control of gaseous pollutants?

  1. Petrochemical                         2. Fertiliser                        3. Paints                         4. Varnish

a) Only 1 and 2                        b) Only 1 and 4                       c) Only 2, 3 and 4                    d) Only 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Combustion, absorption, and adsorption techniques are used to control gaseous pollutants In the combustion process, oxidizable gaseous pollutants are completely burnt at a high temperature. Petro-chemical, fertilizer, paints, and varnish industries are combustion control of gaseous pollutants.

Q10. Consider the following statements:

  1. Hot water is a notable pollutant from the industries.
  2. An oil spill is the accidental discharge of petroleum in oceans or estuaries.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                 b) Only 2              c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Hot water is a notable pollutant from the industries. Many industries including power plants and oil refineries, use water as a coolant for the machinery. The release of hot wastewater, having 8 to 100C Higher temperature than the intake water, causes thermal pollution in the water body.

An oil spill is the accidental discharge of petroleum in oceans or estuaries. Capsized oil tankers, offshore oil mining and oil exploration operations and oil refineries mainly contribute to oil pollution of the marine ecosystem.

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