Chapter Wise Ecology & Environment MCQ’s With Explanation

Today’s Topic: Pollution and Environment Change-1

These are most-important and most-expected Questions for IAS Prelims General Studies paper-1 (Ecology and Environment) of UPSC Civil Service exam.Every day Himalai is coming with different subjects questions and answers with explanation analysis, these Questions will be both theoretical and fact-based. Every day preparation will make a way for success, keep up your daily IAS Exam preparation with Himalai subject wise, chapter wise and topic wise Mcq’s with answers and analysis. We are providing our daily program list so that aspirant can note it and keep a watch on Himalai Mock test blogs for updated questions and get prepared for the Exam.

EveryDay Program List

Monday-General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change

Tuesday- General Science

Wednesday- Indian Polity and Governance

Thursday- History of India and Indian National Movement

Friday- Economic and Social Development

Saturday- Indian and World Geography

 

Today’s Topic: Pollution and Environment Change-1

Q1. Which of the following are Non-biodegradable pollutions?

  1. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides.                      2. Polyethylene bags.

3. Market garbage.                                                     4. Municipal sewage.

a) Only 1 and 2                        b) 1 and 3                    c) Only 2 and 3                                    d) Only 3 and 4

Ans:     A

Explanation:    From the ecosystem viewpoint, pollutants can be categorized into non-biodegradable and biodegradable pollutants. Non-biodegradable pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, waste plastic bottles, polyethylene bags, used soft drink cons etc. are either not degraded, or degraded only very slowly by decomposers in nature. Biodegradable pollutants, such as market garbage, livestock wastes, municipal sewage, etc., on the other hand, can be decomposed efficiently by the decomposers.

Q2. Which of the following are the Biodegradable pollutants?

  1. Waste plastic bottles                     2. Municipal sewage                     3. Livestock wastes                     4. Market garbage

a) Only 1 and 2                        b) Only 2 and 3                       c) Only 1, 3 and 4        d) 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Biodegradable pollutants, such as market garbage, livestock wastes, municipal sewage, etc., can be decomposed efficiently by the decomposers. Therefore, biodegradable pollutants are easily managed by natural processes or in engineered systems such as the waste treatment plants. Waste plastic bottles are the non-biodegradable pollutions.

Q3. Which of the following are primary air pollutants?

  1. Particulate matter                     2. Carbon monoxide                     3. Hydrocarbons                     4. Sulphur dioxide

a) Only 1 and 2                        b) Only 1, 2 and 3                      c) Only 3 and 4                        d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Air pollutants can be classified into two categories, viz., primary and secondary air pollutants Primary air pollutants enter the atmosphere directly from various sources. Amongst the primary air pollutants, the most important are particulate matter, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs), sulphur dioxide (SO)2, and nitrogen oxides (NOx).

Q4. Which of the following is the particulate matter?

  1. Soot                     2. Smoke                     3. Dust 4. Asbestos fibers
  2. a) Only 1, 2 and 3                     b) Only 1, 2 and 4                     c) Only 3 and 4                        d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Particulate matter comprises solid particles or liquid droplets (aerosols) small enough to remain suspended in air, examples are soot, smoke, dust, asbestos fibers, pesticides, some metals (including Hg, Pb, Cu, and Fe), and also biological agents like firry dust miter, spores, and pollen.

Q5. Consider the following statements:

  1. 50 percent of all carbon monoxide emission originates from automobiles.
  2. When inhaled, carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Nearly 50 percent of all CO emission originates from automobiles. It is also present in cigarette smoke. CO is short-lived in the atmosphere and gets oxidized to CO2. Carbon monoxide is highly poisonous to most animals. When inhaled, CO reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.

Q6. Consider the following statements:

  1. Methane (CH4) is evolved from soil microbes in flooded rice fields and swamps.
  2. Natural sources of air pollution include pollen, dust, and smoke.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Hydrocarbons (HCs) or volatile organic carbons (VOCs) are compounds composed of hydrogen and carbon. HCs are produced naturally during decomposition of organic matter. Methane (CH4), the most abundant hydrocarbon in the atmosphere, is evolved from soil microbes (methanogens) in flooded rice fields and swamps Natural sources of air pollution include pollen, dust, and smoke (from forest fires and volcanic ash) which are emitted into the atmosphere.

Q7. Consider the following statements:

  1. Photochemical smog is the classical example of primary air pollutant.
  2. A high concentration of SO2 in ambient air causes severe respiratory problems.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1         b) Only 2         c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     B

Explanation:    Photochemical smog is the classical example of secondary (not primary) air pollutant. It is formed in traffic-congested metropolitan cities where warm conditions and intense solar radiation are present.Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is the major constituent in the major constituent in the emission when sulphur containing coal is burnt. A high concentration of SO2 in ambient air causes severe respiratory problems.

Q8. What are the components of photochemical smog?

  1. Ozone (O3)                     2. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) 3. NOx

a) Only 1 and 2                        b) Only 1 and 3                       c) Only 2 and 3                        d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     D

Explanation:    The classical example of secondary pollutant, photochemical smog is foamed in traffic-congested metropolitan cities where warm conditions and intense solar radiation are present. Photochemical smog is composed mainly of ozone (O3) peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NOx It is often called brown air where solar radiation is intense.

Q9. Consider the following statements:

  1. Where solar radiation is intense photochemical smog is called grey air.
  2. In areas or seasons of lesser solar radiation, smog formation is incomplete and the air is referred to brown air.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                                    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Photochemical smog is formed in traffic-congested metropolitan cities where warm conditions and intense solar radiation are present. It is composed mainly of ozone (O3), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NOx Photochemical smog is often called brown air where solar radiation is intense. In areas or seasons of lesser solar radiation, smog formation is incomplete and the air referred to as grey air.

Q10. Consider the following statements:

  1. The pH of acid rain is more than 6.0.
  2. Most planktons, mollusks and fry young fish cannot tolerate water having pH below 5.0

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                     b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     B

Explanation:    In a broad sense, acid rain refers to several ways in which acids from the atmosphere are deposited on earth. Acid rain deposits include a wet and dry deposition. The pH of acid rain is less than 5.6 and could be as low as 4 or below. Acid rain adversely affects terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. Most planktons, mollusc and fry young fish cannot tolerate water having a pH below 5.0.

 

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