Chapter Wise Ecology & Environment MCQ’s With Explanation

Today’s Topic: Organisms and the Environment-2

These are most-important and most-expected Questions for IAS Prelims General Studies paper-1 (Ecology and Environment) of UPSC Civil Service exam. Every day Himalai is coming with different subjects questions and answers with explanation analysis, these Questions will be both theoretical and fact based. Every day preparation will make a way for success, keep up your daily IAS Exam preparation with Himalai subject wise, chapter wise and topic wise Mcq’s with answers and analysis. We are providing our daily program list so that aspirant can note it and keep a watch on Himalai Mock test blogs for updated questions and get prepare for the Exam.

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Wednesday- Indian Polity and Governance

Thursday- History of India and Indian National Movement

Friday- Economic and Social Development

Saturday- Indian and world Geography

 

Today’s TopicOrganisms and the Environment-2

 

Q1. What is the correct order of following zones in a lake from surface to bottom?

  1. Profundal zone         2. Benthic zone           3. Limnetic zone

a) 1, 2 and 3                 b) 3, 2 and 1                 c) 2, 3 and 1                 d) 3, 1 and 2

Ans:     D The lake has been divided into different zones depending upon the penetration of light. The correct order of these zones from top to bottom are:

  1. Limnetic zone: It is the open water zone, here phytoplankton grow in abundance. In the limnetic zone, light may penetrate up to 20 to 40 m, depending upon the clarity of water.
  2. Profundal zone: Below the limnetic zone is the profundal zone. It is the dark zone, where light does not reach.
  3. Benthic zone: Below the profundal zone is the Benthic zone, it is a habitat for benthic organisms like snails, smugs and microorganisms.

 

Q2. Consider the following statements:

  1. Endotherms regulate their body temperature by physiological means.
  2. Frogs and snakes are examples of Endotherms.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1          b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     a) Endotherms, warm blooded animals, regulate their body temperature by physiological means and maintain in more or less constant internal temperature, even when the temperature outside fluctuates. They have physiological mechanisms for keeping body temperature constant or within tolerance limits.

Frogs and snakes are ectotherms and not endotherms.

 

Q3. Match the following:

Climatic regions                       Latitude

  1. Tropical                          1. 200 – 400
  2. Subtropical                     2. 600 – 800
  3. Temperate                      3. 00 – 200
  4. Arctic and Antarctic        4. 400 – 600

Code:

A         B          C          D

a) 3         1          4          2

b) 3         1          2          4

c) 1         3          2          4

d) 1         3          4          2

Ans.     B

Explanation:     The correctly matched climatic regions with their corresponding latitudes are given as follows:

Tropical                       00 – 200

Subtropical                  200 – 400

Temperate                    400 – 600

Arctic and Antarctic      600 – 800

 

Q4. Consider the following statements:

  1. The mean temperature increases as we move from tropical to arctic region.
  2. Microclimate and the prevailing regional climatic conditions are generally same.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1           b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     D

Explanation:     The mean temperature declines (not increases as we move from tropical to arctic region. The microclimate represents the climatic conditions that prevail at local scale, or in areas of limited size, such as the immediate surroundings of plants and animals, Microclimate generally differs from the prevailing regional climatic conditions.

 

Q5. Consider the following statements:

  1. No two species are believed to occupy exactly the same ecological niche.
  2. The microclimate represents the climatic conditions that prevail at a local scale.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1          b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:     The microclimate represents the climatic conditions that prevail at a local scale, or in areas of limited size, such as the immediate surroundings of plants and animals.

The ecological niche of an organism represents the range of conditions that it can tolerate, the resources it utilizes, and its functional role in the ecological system. Each species has a distinct niche, and no two species are believed to occupy exactly the same niche.

 

Q6. With reference to Troposphere, consider the following statements:

  1. It is extended to about 8-16 km height from the Earth surface.
  2. It contains about 3.0 percent of gases in the atmosphere.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1          b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:     Troposphere, is the lower position of the atmosphere, extending to about 8-16 km height from the Earth surface. It contains more than 90 percent of gases in the atmosphere. Generally temperature decreases with increasing height up to troposphere) in the troposphere.

 

Q7. Consider the following statements:

  1. Water is the only inorganic liquid occurring naturally on Earth.
  2. The hydrological cycle is the movement of water between aquatic systems, air and land.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                      b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:     Water, the only inorganic liquid occurring naturally on Earth, can function as a resources, condition or a habitat. The hydrological cycle is the movement of water between aquatic systems, air and land. Water vapour, an important constituent of the atmosphere, can condense to form clouds, and eventually rainfall. Plants play an important role in the hydrological cycle through the process of transpiration.

 

Q8. Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. In tropical forests about 75 percent of annual rainfall is returned to the atmosphere by plants.
  2. Deserts receive high amount of rainfall.
  3. Rainfall is uneven on the surface of Earth.

a) Only 1          b) Only 1 and 3             c) Only 2 and 3             d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans.     B

Explanation:     Plants play an important role in the hydrological cycle through the process of transpiration. In tropical forests, as much as 75 percent of annual rainfall is returned to the atmosphere by plants, which recharges the atmosphere water vapour. When atmosphere contains enough moisture, it condenses to form fog, cloud, rain or snow. Rainfall is uneven on the surface of Earth. Deserts receive very low rainfall.

 

Q9. Match the following:

List-I                                        List-II

  1. Water Potential 1. The upper limit of water availability of a soil.
  2. Field Capacity 2. The lower limit of water availability in soil.
  3. Waiting Point 3. The force with which soils hold water.

Code:

A         B          C

a) 2         1          3

b) 1          2          3

c) 3          2          1

d) 3         1          2

Ans.     D

Explanation:     Water potential is the force with which soils hold water and it is quantified in terms of pressure. The upper limit of water availability of a soil is called field capacity. The lower limit of water availability in soil is known as wilting point.

 

Q10. Consider the following statements:

  1. With increase in the negative values of water potential, the water availability to plants is increased.
  2. Osmotic potential in the roots of plants causes water to enter the roots from the soil.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1          b) Only 2                      c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     B

Explanation:     When the negative values of water potential is increased the water availability to plants is reduced. It is the osmotic potential in the roots of plants which causes water to enter the roots from the soil. Plants have adapted to variation in water availability by habitat selection, phonological adjustments, or by having higher water use efficiency.

 

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