Chapter Wise Ecology & Environment MCQ’s With Explanation

Today’s Topic: Organisms and the Environment-1

These are most-important and most-expected Questions for IAS Prelims General Studies paper-1 (Ecology and Environment) of UPSC Civil Service exam. Every day Himalai is coming with different subjects questions and answers with explanation analysis, these Questions will be both theoretical and fact based. Every day preparation will make a way for success, keep up your daily IAS Exam preparation with Himalai subject wise, chapter wise and topic wise Mcq’s with answers and analysis. We are providing our daily program list so that aspirant can note it and keep a watch on Himalai Mock test blogs for updated questions and get prepare for the Exam.

EveryDay Program List

Monday-General issues on Environmental Ecology, bio-diversity and Climate Change

Tuesday- General Science

Wednesday- Indian Polity and Governance

Thursday- History of India and Indian National Movement

Friday- Economic and Social Development

Saturday- Indian and world Geography

 

Today’s Topic: Organisms and the Environment-1

 

Q1. Consider the following statements:

  1. An ecosystem is an assemblage of populations of plants, animals, bacteria and fungi that live in an area and interact with each other.
  2. Organisms having the potential for interbreeding and producing fertile offspring constitute species.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1          b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     B

Explanation:     The biological community is an assemblage of populations of plants, animals, bacteria and fungi that live in an area and interact with each other. An ecosystem is composed of a biological community, integrated with its physical environment through the exchange of energy and recycling of the nutrients.

Species are the organisms having the potential for interbreeding and producing fertile offspring

Q2. Match the following:

List-I                                            List-II

  1. Population               1. A unit of land with natural boundry A mosaic of patches.
  2. Landscape               2. A large regional unit characterized by a major Vegetation type and associated fauna found in a specific climatic                                         zone.
  3. Biome                      3. A group of individuals of a plant or an animal Species inhabiting a given area.

Code:

A         B          C

a) 1        3          2

b) 1       2          3

c) 3       2          1

d) 3       1          2

Ans:     D

Explanation:     Population is a group of individuals of a plant or an animals species inhabiting a given area. A landscape is a unit of land with a natural boundary having a mosaic of patches. These patches generally represent different ecosystems. A biome is a large regional unit characterized by a major vegetation type and associated fauna found in a specific climatic Zone.

Q3. Which of the following constitute the biosphere?

  1. Lower Atmosphere 2. The Land 3. The Oceans  4. The Rivers    5. The Lakes

a) Only 1, 2 and 3      b) Only 1, 2 and 4         c) Only 3, 4 and 5         d) 1, 2, 3 4 and 5

Ans:     D

Explanation:     All the Earth’s terrestrial forms and aquatic systems constitute the biosphere. The biosphere consists of the lower atmosphere, the land and the oceans, rivers and lakes where living organisms are found.

Q4. Consider the following statements:

  1. Environment is the sum total of all biotic (living) and a biotic (non-living) factors that surround and potentially influence an organism.
  2. The different components of the environment are interlinked and interdependent.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1         b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:     Environment is the sum total of all biotic (living) and a biotic (non-living) factors that surround and potentially influence an organism. Some components of the environment serve as resource, while others act as a regulatory factor. The different components of the environment are interlinked and interdependent. The environment can be understood both at large and small scales. This is reflected in regional and global climatic patterns, as well as the local climatic conditions, the microclimatic.

Q5. Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. X-rays and ultraviolet rays come under the long wave radiations.
  2. Light or visible spectrum having wavelengths of 400-700 nm is called Photo synthetically Active Radiation (PAR).

a) Only 1          b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     B

Explanation:     Solar spectrum comprises short wave radiation, light, and long wave radiation. The short wave radiations include cosmic rays, X-rays and ultraviolet rays, which have wavelengths shorter than 0.4 nm or 400 nm. Light or visible spectrum having wavelengths of 400-700 nm is also called Photo synthetically Active Radiation (PAR)

Q6. Which one of the following ultraviolet radiation is lethal?

a) UV-A             b) UV-B           c) UV-C           d) None of the above

Ans:     C

Explanation:     The ultraviolet radiation (wavelengths 100 nm – 400 nm) is mostly absorbed by ozone layer present in the stratosphere and only a small fraction of it reaches the Earth’s surface. Depending upon the wavelength, three types of ultraviolet radiation are distinguished: UV-C (100 nm – 280 nm), UV-B (280 nm – 320 nm) and UV-A (320 nm – 400 nm). Out of these three, UV-C radiation is lethal.

Q7. Consider the following statements:

  1. The quality of light plays an important role in flower induction, seed germination and plant movements.
  2. The duration of light regulates the phonological processes, such as flowering and fruiting, in plants.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1                      b) Only 2                      c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:     The quality (wavelength), the intensity (energy measured in joules) and duration (length of day) of light are important to organisms. The intensity of light varies with latitude and time of the day. Light affects the processes of photosynthesis, growth and reproduction in plants. The quality of light plays an important role in flower induction, seed germination and plant movements. The duration of light regulates the phonological processes such as flowering and fruiting in plants. Phenology refers to the timing of seasonal activities of plants in relation to change in environmental conditions.

Q8. Consider the following statements:

  1. In ectotherms, the body temperature tends to match with the environment temperature in which they live.
  2. Birds and mammals are examples of ectotherms.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1          b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:     Temperature is important in controlling the rate of processes inside an organism and also its activities. In ectotherms (cold-blooded animals), the body temperature tends to match with the environmental temperature in which they live.

Birds and mammals are examples of Endotherms (warm-blooded animals). They regulate their body temperature by physiology means and maintain a more or less constant internal temperature, even when the temperature outside fluctuates.

Q9. Consider the following statements:

  1. Phenology refers to the timing of seasonal activities of plants in relation to change in environmental conditions.
  2. In many animals, migration, hibernation and reproductive behaviours are controlled by the relative lengths of day and night.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1             b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:     The quality of light plays an important role in flower induction, seed germination and plant movements. The duration of light regulates the phonological processes, such as flowering and Fruiting, in plants. Phenology refers to the timing of seasonal activities in plants in relation to change in environmental conditions. In many animals, migration, hibernation and reproductive behaviours are controlled by the relative lengths of day and night.

Q10. Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. Phytoplankton grows in abundance in littoral zone.
  2. Snails, Snug’s and microorganisms live in benthic zone.

a) Only 1          b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     B

Explanation:     The shallow water zone around the edge of the lake is the littoral zone. The open water zone beyond the littoral zone is the limnetic zone, here phytoplankton grow in abundance. The dark zone where light does not reach is known as the profoundly zone. The sediments at the bottom of lakes and ponds for the benthic region or zone which is a habitat for benthic organisms like shails, slugs and microorganisms.

 

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