Chapter Wise Ecology & Environment
MCQ’s With Explanation

Today’s Topic: Biodiversity

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Sunday- Indian and world Geography

Monday-General issues on Environmental Ecology, bio-diversity and Climate Change

Tuesday- General Science

Wednesday- Indian Polity and Governance

Thursday- History of India and Indian National Movement

Friday- Economic and Social Development

Saturday-Current Affairs Concepts

Today’s Topic: Biodiversity

Q1. With reference to the zoological survey of India (ISI), consider the following statements:
1. It is a premier institute under the Ministry of Culture
2. Its Headquarters is located at Kolkata
3. It was established in 1916
Which of the statements given above are correct?
a) Only 1 and 2 b) Only 3 c) Only 2 and 3 d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. C
Explanation: The Zoological Survey of India (ISI) a premier institute under the Ministry of Environment and Forest, has been undertaking exploration and research leading to the advancement of our knowledge on the exceptionally rich faunal diversity of the country since its inception in 1916, with its Headquarters at Kolkata and 16 regional centers located in different parts of the country.

Q2. Consider the following statements:
1. Orchids are the largest group of flowering plants in the world.
2. In India, Orchids are found in the western states, the Northeast and the Andaman and Nicobar islands.
Which of the statements gives above is / are correct?
a) Only 1 b) Only 2 c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: C
Explanation: Orchids are the largest group of following plants in the world with over 18,000 species. Of these, 1500 species are found in India, making it one of the largest plant familiar in the country with a high concentration of a staggering 700 species in the Northeastern states; In India, a large number of orchid species are also found in the Western Ghats and Andaman and Nicobar islands.

Q3. With reference to the Botanical Survey of India, consider the following statements:
1. It is the open research organization under the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
2. It was established on 13th February 1880.
Which of the statements given above is / are correct?
a) Only 1 b) Only 2 c) Only 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: A
Explanation: The Botanical Survey of India (BST) is the open research organization under the Ministry of Environment and Forests for carrying out taxonomic and floristic studies of wild plant resources of the country. It was established on 13th February 1880 (not (88) with the basic objective to explore the plant resources of the country and to identify the plants species with economic virtues.

Q4. Consider the following statements
1. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) defines Biodiversity of the totality of genes, species and ecosystems in a region.
2. Genetic diversity is diversity of genetic within a species.
Which of the following statements genes above is /are correct?
a) Only 1 b) Only 2 c) Only 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 and 2
Ans: C
Explanation: Biodiversity is the diversity of different species together with genetic variation within each species in a given area. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) defines it as the totality of genes, species and ecosystems in a region.
Genetic diversity is diversity of genes within a species or a population e.g., different varieties of like. It is basically the diversity of gene which determines the diversity of species which is the determines diversity of a population and ecosystem.

Q5. Consider the following statements
1. More genetic diversity within a species leads to lesser variability and adaptability of individuals of the species to environmental changes.
2. A large gene pool has extensive genetic diversity
Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?
a) Only 1 b) Only 2 c) Only 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: B
Explanation: Genetic diversity is diversity of gene within a species or a population e.g., different varieties of rice. More genetic diversity within a species means greater variability and adaptability of individuals of the species to environmental changes. Genetic diversity on a Large scale is sometimes equated with gene pool. A gene pool is the total genetic diversity found within a population of the species. A large gene pool has extensive genetic diversity and is better able to withstand the environmental stress.

Q6. Consider the following statements
1. The term biological diversity was first used by Raymond F. Dasman.
2. Inbreeding may lead to the extinction of populations or species.
Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?
a) Only 1 b) Only 2 c) Only 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: C
Explanation: The term biological diversity was first used by wildlife scientist and conservationist Raymond F. Dasman in the 1968 in a book A different kind of country advocating conservation.
A large gene pool has extensive genetic diversity and is better able to withstand the environmental stress. Inbreeding contribution to the creation of small gene pool and makes, population or species more likely to go extinct when found with some stress.

Q7. Consider the following statements
1. Species biodiversity means variety of species of biological communities of a given ecosystem.
2. The greater the species diversity, lesser is the length and complexity of food chain and food web.
Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?
a) Only 1 b) Only 2 c) Only 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: A
Explanation: Species biodiversity means variety of species of biological communities such as plants, animals, microbes, etc. of a given ecosystem. For example in a tropical rainforest or savanna or monsoon forest, we find at least 100 species of animals but in a temperate forest there will be less number of species say about 40 due to environmental condition. The greater the diversity of species, greater is the length and complexity of food chain and food web. This in turn leads to further development of ecosystem and evolution of newer and diverse species.

Q8. Consider the following statements
1. Biodiversity is evenly distributed on earth
2. Ecosystem diversity is determined by the diversity of biophysical processes.
Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?
a) Only 1 b) Only 2 c) Only 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: B
Explanation: Biodiversity is not evenly distributed, rather it varies greatly across the globe as well as within regions. The diversity of ecosystem is determined by the diversity of biophysical processes. Variety of habitats and niches for biological communities, etc., which in turn determines the diversity of species. The diversity of ecosystem is determined by weather including rainfall, temperature, topography, soil etc. and physical factors.

Q9. Consider the following statements
1. Endemism means a species is found in a particular area only and not found anywhere.
2. ‘Biodiversity hotspots’ was coined by Norman Myers.
Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?
a) Only 1 b) Only 2 c) Only 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: C
Explanation: The British biologist Norman Myers coined the term ‘biodiversity hotspots’ in 1998 as a Geographical region characterized both by exceptional levels of plant endemism and by serious levels of habitat loss. Endemism means a species is found in a particular area only, it is confined to that area and not found outside.

Q10. Which of the following criteria a region must meet to quality as hotspot?
1. It must contain almost 1500 species of vascular plants as endemics.
2. It must contain at least 1500 species of vascular plants as endemics.
3. It has to have lost at least 70% of its original habitat.
a) Only 1 and 2 b) Only 1 and 3 c) Only 2 and 3 d) None of the above
Ans: C
Explanation: According to conservation International (CI), to qualify as a hotspot a region must meet two criteria: It must contain at least 1500 species of vascular plants (more than 0.5% of the world’s total) as endemics, and it has to have at least 70% of its original habitat.
Which of the following are found in Himalayas?
1. Vultures 2. Tigers 3. Leopards 4. Elephants

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