Chapter Wise Ecology & Environment MCQ’s With Explanation

Today’s Topic: Application of Biotechnology

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Today’s Topic: Application of Biotechnology

 

Q1. Consider the following statements:

  1. Genetically altered micro-organisms are used to produce insulin and interferon.
  2. Micro-organisms are used in the treatment of sewage sludge.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1          b) Only 2           c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:     Micro –organisms are used to produce solvents such as ethanol and other alcohols, organic acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, etc. Genetically altered micro organisms are used to produce insulin and interferon. Micro organisms are used in the treatment of sewage sludge and in combating water pollution.

Q2. Which of the following can be made by using Micro-organisms?

  1. Alcohols               2. Organic acids            3. Carbohydrates          4. Vitamins

a) Only 1 and 2             b) Only 2 and 3             c) Only 3 and 4             d) 1, 2 and 4

Ans:     D

Explanation:     Micro-organisms are used to produce solvents such as ethanol and other alcohols, organic acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, etc. They are used to produce desired changes in certain types of compounds or materials and even in the production of electric power in fuel cells.

Q3. Consider the following statements:

  1. Micro organism are used in the production of electric power in fuel cellos.
  2. Bacteria is used for fixation of atmospheric nitrogen for agricultural benefit.

Which of the statements given above is /are correct?

a) Only 1          b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:     Microorganisms are used to produce solvents such as ethanol and other alcohols, organic acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, etc. They are used to produce designed changes in certain types of compounds or materials and even in the production of electric power in fuel cells Microorganisms are used in the treatment of sewage sludge and in combating water pollution. Bacteria have been used for fixation of atmospheric nitrogen for agricultural benefit.

Q4. Consider the following statements:

  1. Yeast ferments carbohydrates into alcohols.
  2. Ethyl alcohol is produced from organic material that contains sugar.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1             b) Only 2              c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:     Louis Pasteur demonstrated that fermentation of sugar is carried out by microorganisms. Yeast ferments carbohydrates efficiently into alcohols. Microorganisms like bacteria and fungi are used to produce alcohol on a large scale today. Ethyl alcohol is produced from organic material that contains sugar. The cost of raw materials in fermentation affects the cost of products.

Q5. Consider the following statements:

  1. Alcohols are used as liquid fuel called gasohol.
  2. Ethanol is used as a solvent.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only             b) Only 2               c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:     Alcohols are used as liquid fuel called gasohol. Biomass derived from agriculture of municipal wastes can be converted into alcohol for commercial use.

Ethanol is used as a solvent. It is used as the raw material for the synthesis of many other solvents of dyes, pharmaceuticals, lubricants, detergents, pesticides, etc.

Q6. Consider the following statements:

  1. Antibiotics are chemical substances secreted by living substances which kill or inhibit the activity of disease-causing microorganisms.
  2. The antibiotic penicillin was discovered by Louis Pasteur in 1929.

Which of the statements given above is / are correct?

a) Only 1          b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:     Antibiotics are chemical substances secreted by living substances which kill or inhibit the activity of disease-causing microorganisms for example, penicillin, streptomycin etc.

The antibiotic penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1929, but its commercial production began only during early 1940s.

Q7. Consider the following statements:

  1. When the vaccine is administered to an individual it induces him to produce an antibody to combat the pathogen.
  2. In 1997 India’s first genetically engineered vaccine against Hepatitis-B was developed.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1             b) Only 2           c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:     Vaccine is a disease producing organisms in its weak or inactivated state. When the vaccine is administered to an individual it induces him to produce an antibody to combat the pathogen (disease producing organisms). This protects the individual from the concerned injection in future.

India’s first genetically engineered vaccine (Gusi) against Hepatitis-B was developed in 1997 by a Hyderabad based laboratory, Shautha Biotechnics Pvt. Ltd.

Q8. Consider the following statements:

  1. Biotechnology is the exploitation of natural resources at the microbial and molecular level for the benefit of mankind.
  2. Human Genome Project has helped to determine the exact chemical sequence that constitutes the DNA in every cell of a human body.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1          b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:     Biotechnology holds a lot of promise in the future in the form of new drugs, therapies and bioremediation of wastes. It is the exploitation of natural resources at the microbial and molecular level for the benefit of mankind.

Human Gene Project has helped to determine the exact chemical sequence that constitutes the DNA in every cell of human body.

Q9. Which of the following have been produced through genetic engineering?

  1. Human insulin             2. Human growth hormone              3. Alpha interferon                4. Hepatitis-B vaccine

a) Only 1 and 2             b) Only 3 and 4             c) 1, 2 3 and 4               d) None

Ans:     C

Explanation:     The utilization of genetic machinery of life for the production of any special substance is called genetic engineering or biotechnology. Products like human insulin, human growth harmone, alpha interferon and Hepatitis-B vaccine have been produced through genetic engineering.

Q10. Consider the following statements:

  1. Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA), controls heart attacks.
  2. Genetically engineered mice cells can be used for curing brain tumours.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1        b) Only 2            c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     c) Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) is being used to dissolve blood clots and thus to control heart attacks. It has been found that genetically engineered mice cells can be used for curing brain tumours. Gene therapy is useful for treatment of certain diseases like Thalassemia for which no other treatment is available.

 

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