Chapter Wise Ecology & Environment MCQ’s With Explanation

Today’s Topic: Application of Biotechnology-2

These are most-important and most-expected Questions for IAS Prelims General Studies paper-1 (Ecology and Environment) of UPSC Civil Service exam. Every day Himalai is coming with different subjects questions and answers with explanation analysis, these Questions will be both theoretical and fact based. Every day preparation will make a way for success, keep up your daily IAS Exam preparation with Himalai subject wise, chapter wise and topic wise Mcq’s with answers and analysis. We are providing our daily program list so that aspirant can note it and keep a watch on Himalai Mock test blogs for updated questions and get prepare for the Exam.

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Sunday- Indian and world Geography

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Saturday-Current Affairs Concepts

 

Today’s TopicApplication of Biotechnology-2

Q1. Consider the following statements:

1. Genetic Diseases are those diseases or abnormalities caused at or before birth by deformed genes.

2. Albinos are a result of absence or pigment melanin when the colour genes do not work properly.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1          b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:     Genetic Diseases are those diseases or abnormalities caused at or before birth by deformed genes. The result may be a defect in some organ or part of the body. Albinos are a result of absence of pigment melanin when absence of pigment melanin when the colour genes do not work properly. Haemophilia is caused when certain genes fail to produce bold clotting sub stances.

Q2. The technology of artificially growing cells, tissues and organs to the desired genetic purity and with properties such as high yields and disease resistance is called as:

a) Tissue culture           b) Microbial leaching             c) Biotechnology            d) None of the above

Ans:     A

Explanation:     Tissue culture is the technology of artificially growing cells, tissues and organs to the desired genetic purity and with properties such as high yields and disease resistance. It is thus important in improving agriculture, crops and plants, forest trees and for isolation of medical compounds used in pharmaceutical industry.

Q3. Consider the following statements:

  1. Microbial leaching refers to the process of using microorganisms to degrade waste matter.
  2. Haemophilia is caused when certain genes fail to produce blood-clotting substances.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1             b) Only 2                c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans.     B

Explanation:     Microbial leaching is the process by which metals are dissolved by microorganisms from ore-bearing rocks. Microbial technology recovers metals which cannot be economically processed otherwise. The low grade ores are discarded in waste heaps which enter in the environment.

Haemophlia is caused when certain genes fail to produce blood clotting substances.

Q4. Consider the following statements:

  1. Bioremediation is the process by which metals are dissolved by microorganisms from ore-bearing rocks.
  2. Vermicomposting is the phenomenon of compost formation by earthworms.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1           b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     B

Explanation:     Bioremediation refers to the process of using microorganisms to degrade waste matter. This can be done by introducing nutrients to stimulate the activity of bacteria in the waste or by adding new bacteria to the soil.

Vermicomposting is the phenomenon of compost formation by earthworms. Earthworms play an important role in the cycling of plant nutrients, turnover of organic matter and maintenance of soil structure.

Q5. What are the components of slurry-phase treatment:

  1. Water            2. Suspended particulate matter               3. Air

a) Only 1 and 2             b) Only 1 and 3             c) Only 2 and 3             d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:     D

Explanation:     Slurry-phase treatment involves three major components: water, and air. Here water serves as a suspending medium where some contaminants are dissolved. Suspended particulate matter is heated as the solid waste. In water treatment Lagoon, Air is provided for microbial growth. The microorganisms breakdown the polluted organic matter.

Q6. Which of the following methods can be employed for bio-remediation of oil spills:

  1. Using mixture of bacteria.
  2. Using genetically engineered microbial stuns.

a) Only 1              b) Only 2                c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:     Oils have a variety of hydrocarbons. If present in the environment, these cause pollution. Oil is insoluble in water and it floats on water surface. The microorganisms which are capable of degrading petroleum include various bacteria and yeasts. There are two methods for bioremediation of hydrocarbons or oil spills. (i) by using mixture of bacteria and (ii) using genetically engineered microbial stains.

Q7. Consider the following statements:

  1. Biotechnology can be utilized to produce new varieties of plants and animals with desired characteristics.
  2. Biotechnology can be used to make a plant resistant to specific diseases or pests.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1          b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

An organism posses on its characteristics to its offspring through basic units called Genes. It is the pattern of these genes in a plant or animal which determines its potential physical characteristics, growth and behavior. Biotechnology manipulates these genes in an organism to change its characteristics. For example, biotechnology can be utilized to produce new varieties of plants and animals with desired characteristics. It can be used to make a plant resistant to specific diseases or pests.

Q8. Consider the following statements:

  1. Modern Biotechnology uses methods of genetic modification of the basic cell pattern in organisms.
  2. Antibiotics are produced by only bacteria.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1          b) Only 2          c) Both 1 and 2             d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     A

Explanation:     The traditional biotechnology refers to the conventional technology which has been used for many centuries. It includes the processes that are based on the natural capabilities of microorganisms. Modern Biotechnology uses methods of genetic modification of the basic cell pattern in organism.

Antibiotics are chemical substances secreted by living substances which kill or inhibit the activity of disease-causing microorganisms. They are produced by both fungi and bacteria.

 

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