Himalai
Prelims Test No 3 with answers
Jainism, Buddhism and Mahajanapadas

1. Consider the following statements:
1. Gandhara Buddha came to be known for certain new features such as curly hair,
sleekness and being carved out of black stone.
2. Mathura Buddha on the other hand was seen as an example of volume and loftiness.
3. Amaravati Buddha betrayed Greek influence because of close contacts with the
Romans.
Select the code for correct statements.
a) 1 Only b) 3 only c) 1,2 and 3 d) None of the above
Ans: c) 1,2 and 3

2. With regards to Buddhism, consider the following statements:
1. The sacred books of Buddhism written in Prakrit are called Tripitakas. The addition of a third Pitaka. The Abhidhamma, to the Buddhist Canonical text took place at the third Buddhist council.
2. Nagasena presided over the Fourth Buddhist Council which saw Buddhism split into two broad sects, Mahayana and Hinayana.
Select the code for correct statements:
a) 1 Only b) 2 only c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: c) Both 1 and 2

3. The importance of Nagarjunakonda Stupa is due to its beautiful panels, which illustrate
episodes from the life of Buddha. The characteristic scenes depicted are:
1. God’s praying to Bodhisathva to take birth on the earth
2. Buddha’s entry into womb in the form of a white elephant
3. Birth of Buddha under a flowering teak tree
Select the code for correct statements.
a) 1 Only b) 3 only c) 1 and 2 d) 1,2 and 3
Ans: d) 1,2 and 3

4. The early Buddhism incorporated some of the pre- Buddhist elements, as is best
demonstrated by
a) The worship of Buddha as icons.
b) The presence of large standing Yaksas and Yaksis.
c) The elaborate narrative scenes from the life of Buddha and from the Jatakas which
reveal a strong ethical bias.
d) The incorporation of non- Buddhist deities and mythical concepts.
Ans: b) The presence of large standing Yaksas and Yaksis.

5. We get Buddha images mainly in two postures- standing and sitting. Among the sitting
idols, the one found at Katra is among the oldest, and has certain characteristic features. Point out the incorrect one:
a) Buddha sitting under a Bodhi tree.
b) Right hand in abhaya posture.
c) Dharam- Chakra and Tri-ratna chiselled in palms and at the button of feet.
d) None of the above.
Ans: d) None of the above.

6. “The Western classical element resides in the style, in the treatment of the robe, and in
the physiognomy of the Buddha”. To which one of the following schools of Indian sculpture does the above statement relate?
a) Mathura school b) Gandhara school c) Amaravati school d) Maurya school
Ans: b) Gandhara school

7. In the sphere of politics Buddhism holds that the govt should promote the welfare of the
people by all possible means. This ideal is embodied in the figure of the Chakravati- raja
of Dharmaraja, as described in
a) Ashoka’s thirteenth Rock Edict
b) Mahasudassana Sultanta of Digha- vikaya
c) Abhidharma Hridaya
d) Sukhavati- Vyuha
Ans: b) Mahasudassana Sultanta of Digha- vikaya

8. In Mahayana Buddhism, Buddha is regarded not only as an enlightened being, but also as
an embodiment of truth and reality behind the universe, and has various forms and attributes. These go on to constitute different between Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, around each of whom there is a popular cult.
1. Amitabh, the Buddha of Infinite Light
2. Manjushri Vajrapani, the Bodhisattava of wisdom
3. Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva of compassion
4. Vajrapani, the Bodhisattava of power
Select the code for correct statements.
a) Only 1 b) Only 2 c) 1 and 3 d) 1,2,3 and 4
Ans: d) 1,2,3 and 4

9. Of the following features of Buddhism which is not true?
a) It believes that the world is full of sorrow
b) It strongly believes in the power of human action
c) It believes that it is the duty of the righteous ruler to ensure a means of subsistence to
everyone
d) It is pessimistic as it believes that the man is caught in the cycle of misery
Ans: d) It is pessimistic as it believes that the man is caught in the cycle of misery

10. Why did Buddhism start declining in India in the early medieval times?
1. Buddha was by that time considered as one of the incarnations of Vishnu and thus
became a part of Vaishnavism.
2. The invading tribes from Central Asra till the time of last Gupta king adopted
Hinduism and persecuted Buddhists.
3. The Kings of Gupta dynasty were strongly opposed to Buddhism.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only b) 1 and 3 only c) 2 and 3 only d) 1,2 and 3
Ans: a) 1 only

11. Consider the following statements:
1. Buddhist images were not depicted on the Mauryan ring stones and disc stones that
were produced under royal patronage
2. The Sanchi pillar brought to light a particular pattern known as the lotiform bell, which
was borrowed from Greece.
Select the code for incorrect statements.
a) 1 only b) 2 only c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 and 2
Ans: a) 1 only

12. Who among the following was not a contemporary of the other three?
a) Bimbsara b) Gautama Buddha c) Milinda d) Prasenjit
Ans: c) Milinda

13. Consider the following statements:
1. The Ikshvaku rulers of Southern India were antagonistic towards Buddhism.
2. The Pala rulers of Eastern India were patrons of Buddhism.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only b) 2 only c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: b) 2 only

14. In ancient Indian Buddhist monasteries, a ceremony called Pavarana used to be held. It
was the
a) Occasion to elect the Sanghaparinayaka and two speakers one on Dhamma and the other on Vinaya
b) Confession by monks of their offences committed during their stay in the monasteries during the rainy season
c) Ceremony of initiation of new person into the Buddhist Sangha in which the head is shaved and when yellow robes are offered
d) Gathering of Buddhist monks on the next day to the full- moon day of Ashadha, wherein they take up a fixed abode of the next four months of rainy season
Ans: b) Confession by monks of their offences committed during their stay in the monasteries
during the rainy season

15. The concept of Eight- fold path forms the theme of
a) Dipavamsa b) Divyavadana
c) Mahaparinibban Sutta d) Dharma Chakra Pravartana Sutta
Ans: d) Dharma Chakra Pravartana Sutta

16. Which of the following kingdoms were associated with the life of the Buddha?
1. Avanti 2. Gandhara 3. Kosala 4. Magadha
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
a) 1,2 and 3 b) 2 and 4 c) 3 and 4 d) 1,3 and 4
Ans: c) 3 and 4

17. Who among the following was not a contemporary of the other three?
a) Bimbisara b) Gautama Buddha c) Milinda d) Prasenjit
Ans: c) Milinda

18. Pick the correct statements.
a) The differences between the Digambaras and Shvetambaras extended to some areas of
religious beliefs and practices.
b) The differences between the Digambaras and Shvetambaras extended to all areas of
religious beliefs and practices.
c) Inscription are the only means of reconstructing the history of the spread of Buddhism and Jainism.
d) During the first millennium CE, Buddhism spread to Africa and South America
Ans: a) The differences between the Digambaras and Shvetambaras extended to some areas of
religious beliefs and practices.

19. With reference to ancient Jainism, which one of the following statements is correct?
a) Jainism was spread in South India under the leadership of Bhadrabahu were called
Shvetambaras after the Council held at Pataliputra
b) The Jain was who remained under the leadership of Bhadrabahu were called
Shvetambaras after the Council held at Pataliputra
c) Jainism enjoyed the patronage of the Kalinga king Kharavela in the first century BC
d) In the initial stage of Jainism, the Jainas worshipped images unlike Buddhists
Ans: c) Jainism enjoyed the patronage of the Kalinga king Kharavela in the first century BC

20. The canonical works in Prakrit related to the Shvetambara sect of the Jains, which deal
with the main tenets of Jain philosophy and its way of life, is known as:
a) Siddhanta b) Prathamanuyoga c) Rupasiddhi d) None of the above
Ans: a) Siddhanta

21. With reference to the religious history of India. Consider the following statements:
1. Sautrantika and Sammitiya were the sects of Jainism.
2. Sarvastivadin held that the constituents of phenomena were not wholly momentary, but existed forever in a latent form.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only b) 2 only c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: b) 2 only

22. The Jain philosophy holds that the world is created and maintained by
a) Universal law b) Universal Truth c) Universal Faith d) Universal Soul
Ans: b) Universal Truth

23. With reference to ancient Jainism, which one of the following statements is correct?
a) Jainism was spread in South India under the leadership of Sthulabahu
b) The Jainas who remained under the leadership of Bhadrabahu were called Shvetambaras after the Council held at Pataliputra
c) Jainism enjoyed the patronage of the Kalinga king Kharavela in the first century BC
d) In the initial stage of Jainism, the Jainism worshipped images unlike Buddhists
Ans: c) Jainism enjoyed the patronage of the Kalinga king Kharavela in the first century BC

24. Which one of the following is not a part of early Jains literature?
a) Therigatha b) Acaranga Sutra c) Sutrakritanga d) Brihat Kalpasutra
Ans: a) Therigatha

25. Examine the following statements:
1. The Chinese pilgrims who come to India were keen to collect Buddhist manuscripts.
2. Buddhism and Jainism were in conflict with the bhakti tradition.
3. The Buddhist theory of anattavada denies the presence of an abiding self.
4. The ideas on which niyati – vada and syad- vada are based are approximately the same.
Choose the code for correct statements:
a) 1,2 & 3 b) 2 only c) 2 & 4 d) All are correct
Ans: d) All are correct

26. The principle that distinguishes Jainism from Buddhism is the
a) Practice of eightfold path
b) Rejection of infallibility of vedas
c) Attribution of a soul to all begins and things
d) Belief in rebirth
Ans: c) Attribution of a soul to all begins and things

27 Consider the following statements:
1. Vardhaman Mahavira’s mother was the daughter of Lichchhavi chief chetaka.
2. Gautama Buddha’s mother was a princess from the Koshalan dynasty.
3. Parshavanatha, the twenty- third Tirthankara, belonged to banaras.
Which of these statements is/are correct?
a) Only 1 b) Only 2 c) 2 and 3 d) 1,2 and 3
Ans: c) 2 and 3

28. Which of the following were common to both Buddhism and Jainism?
1. Avoidance of extremities of penance and enjoyment
2. Indifference to the authority of the Vedas
3. Denial of efficacy of rituals
4. Non- injury to animal life
Select the correct answer using the codes given
a) 1,2,3 and 4 b) 2,3 and 4 c) 1,3 and 4 d) 1 and 2
Ans: b) 2,3 and 4

29. Several premier ancient institutions that imparted knowledge carried a special
ideological emphasis
1. Nalanda- brahmanical
2. Kanchi – Hinayana
3. Vallabhi – Mahayana
4. Vikramashila – Vajrayana
Select the code for correct combination
a) Only 2 b) 1 and 2 c) Only 3 d) 1,2,3 and 4
Ans: d) 1,2,3 and 4

30. Which one of the following was initially the most powerful city state of India in the 6th
century B.C.?
a) Gandhar b) Kamboj c) Kashi d) Magadh
Ans: d) Magadh
31. The mauryan emperor Asoka erected various dharma stambhas what was not
depicted on them?
a) Buddha b) Mahapasus (bull, horse, lion and elephant)
c) Lotus, and d) Dharmachakra
Ans: c) Lotus, and

32. Consider the following statements with regards to the Stupa at Sanchi:
1. It is the largest stupa, also called the Great Stupa
2. Its brick core was built in Ashoka’s time.
3. The sculptural panels represent important events in the life of the Buddha.
Select the code for correct statements.
a) 1 only b) 3 only c) 1,2 and 3 d) None of the above
Ans: c) 1,2 and 3