INTERNATIONAL DAY AGAINST NUCLEAR TESTS
International Day against Nuclear Tests:
August 29th is celebrated annually as International Day against Nuclear Tests or Anti Nuclear day. It was declared on 69th UN General Assembly on December 2nd 2009 as a remembrance of the closure of Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site on 29th August 1991, the primary nuclear testing area of Soviet Union. Hence it is also known as UN international day against nuclear weapons. Anti Nuclear day in 2020 is celebrated on August 29th 2020.
Many events, Seminars, conference and media broadcasting are done by the UN to create awareness for need of banning nuclear weapons. Its main aim is to bring CTBT to force. Anti Nuclear day in India is celebrated by educational events in colleges and schools to educate everyone about the adverse effects of nuclear testing.
International anti-nuclear day as a part of Our India with World Event Himalai wants to create awareness to make the world free of Nuclear weapons
Nuclear tests are conducted to obtain information about the power and behaviour of a nuclear weapon during its explosion.
- It can be tested in the atmosphere, above the atmosphere known as exo-atmospheric, underground or underwater.
- The first nuclear weapon was tested by the United States on July 16th 1945.
- Many countries that have developed nuclear weapon have tested it.
- Being a nuclear state gives countries a sense of security and power.
Do You Know How many nuclear bombs have been tested?
More than 2000 nuclear weapons have been tested till this day. The latest weapon test was conducted by North Korea in 2017.
List of Nuclear Test conducted by Nuclear States:
|No.||Country||No. of Nuclear Weapons tested|
Nuclear Testing in India:
- In 1974 India had it’s first successful attempted in nuclear testing, which was given the name ‘Smiling Buddha’.
- After that, another 5 successful underground tests were conducted at Pokhran of Rajasthan in 1998, which was called as Pokhran II. No atmospheric radiations were released.
- It was conducted under the guidance of visionaries like Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, Atal Bihari Vajpayee to secure National security.
- The reaction of many countries like U.S, Japan, China, Canada and other countries with regards to this Nuclear Tests were severed, they banned all sanctions except humanitarian aids.
- One of the strong reactions was from Pakistan saying that India has started a Nuclear Race.
- Nuclear test in Pakistan was conducted in later years.
Effects of Nuclear Testing:
- There are many adverse effects of Nuclear Testing, The radiations contamination in atmosphere, water and land affect plant and animal life severely.
- It has major effects on Human health, long term exposure to radiation permanently damages the internal organs; few of radiation effects are bone cancer, thyroid cancer, leukaemia, effects mother’s milk and cause deformation during childbirth.
- Before 1950 no consideration was given for the damage caused by Nuclear Testing.
- It is estimated that the bombs tested in between 1945 to 1980 has effects equivalent to 29000 times in size of Hiroshima Bomb.
Treaties for Banning Nuclear Testing:
- On 1968 Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) was signed by U.S, U.K and the Soviet Union in banning the tests conducted in atmosphere and underwater. But France and China continued atmospheric testing till 1980.
- Even underground testing causes harsh effects on the soil of the surrounding area of the blast.
- Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was established in 1996 to ban all types of nuclear weapon test, Due to opposing states, this has not come to force.
Since the International Day against Nuclear Tests was first declared, there are a variety of serious developments, discussions and initiatives relevant to its goals and objectives also as conferences convened to elaborate and advance these developments.
1 February: The us announced the suspension of its compliance to the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty).
2 February: Russia suspended the INF Treaty.
27-28 February: The Summit between the leaders of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and therefore the US of America was held in Hanoi, Viet Nam.
8-12 April: The third meeting of the Group of Governmental Experts to think about the role of verification in advancing nuclear disarmament was held in Geneva.
29 April – 10 May: The third session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2020 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference was held in ny .
8 May: The Islamic Republic of Iran announced its intention to not commit itself to a number of the provisions of the Joint Comprehensive Program of Action (JCPOA).
30 June: The Summit between the leaders of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and therefore the US of America was held within the Korean DMZ .
5 February: The us of America and therefore Russia met the central limits on the Treaty on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (“New START”).
15-16 February: The second informal Consultative Meeting of the FMCT High-level Expert Preparatory Group was held in ny .
23 April – 4 May: The 2nd session for the 2020 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference of the Preparatory Committee was held in Geneva.
8 May: The us announced its intention to withdraw from the JCPOA, an agreement on the Iranian nuclear programme.
14 -18 May: the primary meeting of the Group of Governmental Experts to think about the role of verification in advancing nuclear disarmament was held in Geneva.
24 May: Launched a new disarmament agenda by the UN Secretary-General “Securing our Common Future” in Geneva.
28 May – June 8: The FMCT High-Level Expert Preparatory Group held its final meeting in Geneva.
12 June: The Summit between the leaders of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and therefore the US of America was held in Singapore.
1 July: Commemorated the 50th anniversary of the opening for signature of Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
7 July: Commemorated the primary anniversary of the adoption of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.
20 October: The us declared its intention to withdraw from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty).
12 -16 November: The second meeting of the Group of Governmental Experts to think about the role of verification in advancing nuclear disarmament was held in Geneva.