Historical Background

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1. Who among the following created the office of the district collector in India?
a) Lord Cornwallis
b) Warren Hastings
c) The Royal Commission on Decentralization
d) Sir Charles Metcalfe
Ans B
Explanation: Warren Hastings, PC (6 December 1732-22 August 1818) was the first Governor General of India, from 1773 to 1785. Warren Hastings introduced the office of the District collector in 1772. The office of the Collector during the British Raj held Multiple responsibilities- as Collector, he was the head of the revenue organization, charged with registration, alteration, and partition of holdings; the settlement of disputes; The management of indebted estates; loans to agriculturists, and famine relief. As District Magistrate, he exercised general supervision over the inferior courts and in particular, directed the police work. The office was meant to achieve the ―peculiar purpose‖ of collecting revenue and of keeping the peace. The Superintendent of Police, Inspector General, of Jails, the Surgeon General, the Chief Conservator of Forests and the chief Engineer had to inform the Collector of every activity in their Departments. Though the additional Commissioners of Income Tax are important officials of the district they do not have to send a report to the collector as they work for the central government and not the state governments. Until the later part of the nineteenth century, no native was eligible to become a district collector. But with the introduction of open competitive examinations for the Indian Civil Services, the office was opened to natives, Anandaram Baruah, the sixth Indian and the first Assamese ICS officer, became the first Indian to be appointed a District Magistrate. The district continued to be the unit of administration after India gained independence in 1947. The role of the District Collector remained largely unchanged, except for separation of most judicial powers to judicial officers of the district. Later, with the promulgation of the National Extension Services and Community Development Programme by the Nehru government in 1952, the District Collector was entrusted with the additional responsibility of implementing the government‘s development programme in the district.

2. Indian Councils act 1909 is also called as
a) Minto Morely reforms
b) Montague Chemsgord reforms
c) Cripps Proposal
d) Mount batten plan
Ans A

3. In which of the following acts the provincial subjects were divided into transferred and reserved subjects?
a) Indian Council‘s Act, 1892
b) Indian Council‘s Act, 1909
c) Montague Chelmsford Reforms Act, 1919
d) Government of India Act, 1935
Ans: C
Explanation: 1. Reserved subjects like Finance, law and order, army, police etc. 2. Transferred subjects like public health, education, agriculture, local self government etc.

4. Pitt India act was passed
a) 1784
b) 1575
c) 1857
d) 1758
Ans A
Explanation: The east India Company Act 1784 , also know as Pitts India Act, was an act of the parliament of great Britain intended to address the shortcoming of the regulating Act of 1773 by bringing the East India Company‘s rule in India under the control of the british Government. Pitts India Act provided for the appointment of a board of control, and Provided for the government of British India by the company and the crown with the government holding the ultimate authority.

5. Which act separated Burma and Aden from India?
a) Indian Councils Act 1909
b) Government of India Act 1919
c) Government of India Act 1935
d) Indian Independence Act 1947.
Ans C
Explanation: Aden was governed and organized as a province of the british India between 1939 and 1937, while physically located on the southern Arabian peninsula. Aden had been governed since September 1839 as the aden settlement, A non regulation province subordinated to the Bombay presidency and then as a Regulation province governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the governor general of India. After British occupation Aden soon became an important transit port and coaling station for trade between Europe, India and the Far East. The commercial and strategic importance of aden increased considerably after the Red sea was surveyed and the Suez Canal opened in 1869. From then and until the 1960‘s the port of aden was to be one of the busiestship bunkering, duty free shopping and trading posts in the world. later, british influence would extend progressively into vast hinterland and, by the early 1900‘s the british Government of India began to refer to the nine protectorates neighbouring Aden Settlement Consisiting of siuth Arabian and the Aden Residency, as the Aden Protectorate, aden was to remain under british control until 1967. Under the Government of India Act 1935 the territory was detached from british Indian and was re organized as a separate crown colony of the united kingdom, the colony of aden: this separation ook effect on 1 april 1937.


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