We are Enjoying Our Freedom Today is all because of our Freedom Fighters Struggle and Lot More, Let us Appreciate and Remember our Great Legends who fought for our Freedom, We all are so Fortunate to Enjoy all Privileges. On the Eve of Independence Day let us go back to our past and have a overview of it. Himalai is trying to bring the best possible Memories of the Struggle which made us to Proudly say we are Independent.
Let us have a look at the Freedom Struggle we Fought and we are bring it in a Educative model which can make you enjoy the freedom struggle and prepare for the exam.
The Revolt of 1857
- The Revolt of 1857 is an important landmark in the history of India which occurred during the governor-generalship of Lord canning.
- Causes of the Revolt: The revolt of 1857 was a combination of political, economic, socio-religious and military causes.
- Political: Nana Sahib was refused pension, as he was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. Avadh was annexed in 1856, on charges of mal-administration Satara, Jhani, Nagapur and Sambhalpur were annexed owing to Doctrine of Lapse.
- Economic: Heavy taxation, forcible evictions, discriminatory tariff policy against Indian products and destruction of traditional handicrafts that his peasants and artisans.
- Socio religious: British social reforms (abolition of sati, 1829; legalization of widow remarriage, 1856, etc) hurted the sentiments of orthodox and conservative People.
- Military : Discrimination with Indian soldiers.
- Immediate Cause: The introduction of Enfield rifles whose cartridges were said to have a greased cover made of beef and pork sparked off the revolt.
- The Beginning and Spread of the Revolt: On March 29, 1857, an Indian sepoy of 34 Native Infantry, Mangal Pandey, killed two British officers – Hugeson and Baugh –on parade at Barrackpore (near Calcutta). The Indian soldiers present, refused to obey orders to arrest Mangal Pandey. However, he was later on arrested, put to and hanged.
- The mutiny really started at Merrut on 10th May 1857. The occasion was the punishment of some sepoys for their refusal to use the greased cartridges. The soldiers along with other groups of civilians, went on a rampage shouting ‘Maro Firangiko’. They broke open jails, murdered Europeans, burnt their houses and marched to Delhi after sunset.
- The appearance of the marching soldiers next morning (i.e. 11th May) in Delhi was a signal to the local soldiers, who in turn revolted, seized the city and proclaimed the 82-year old Bahadur Shah ‘Zafar’, as Shahenshah-i-Hindustan (i.e. Emperor of India).
|Centre||Beginning date||Ending Date||Indian Leader||British Suppressor|
|Delhi||11 May, 1857||20 Sep, 1857||Bahadur Shah II ‘Zafar’ and Bakti Khan (Commanding General)||John Nicholson|
|Kanpur||4 June, 1857||6 Dec 1857||Nana Sahib and his loyal commander Tantiya Tope||Colin Campbell|
|Lucknow||4 June, 1857||21 Mar, 1858||Begum Hazrat Mahal||Colin Campbell|
|Jhansi||4 June, 1857||18 June, 1858||Rani Laxmi Bai||Huge Rose|
|Allahabad||5 June, 1857||March, 1858||Liyaqat Ali||Colonel Neil|
|Tagdishpur (Bihar)||Aug, 1857||Dec, 1858||Kuer Singh and Amar Singh||William Taylor and Vincet Eyre|
- Within a month of the capture of Delhi, the revolt spread to the different parts of India (esp. all over the North India, Central India and Western India). South remained quite and Punjab and Bengal were only marginally affected.
- Bahadur Shah II: was deported to Rangoon, where he died in 1862. His sons were dead: Nana Sahib (original name -Dhundhu Pant), Begum Hazrat Mahal and Khan Bahadur Khan : Escaped to Nepal; Tantiya Tope (Original name – Ramachandra Pandurang) : was captured and executed on 15th April, 1859; Rani Laxmi Bai: Died in the battle-field; Kuerr Singh: was wounded and died on 26 April, 1858.
- Sir Huge Rose described Laxmi BAi as ‘the best and bravest military leader of the rebel’.
- Other Important Leaders : Khan Bahadur Khan (bareilly), Maulavi Ahmadullah (Faizabad), Azimullah Khan (Fatehpur) Devi Singh (Mathura),. Kadam Singh (Merrut) etc.
- English authority re-established in India during July-Dec. 1858.
Causes of Failure: The Revolt of 1857 was an unsuccessful but heroic effort to eliminate foreign rule. The main causes were:
- Disunity of Indians and poor organization
- Lack of complete nationalism –Scindias, Holkars, Nizam and others actively helped the British
- Lack of coordination between sepoys, peasants, zamindars and other classes
- Many had different motives for participating in the revolt.
The important element in the revolt lay in Hindu-Muslim unity. People exhibited patriotic sentiment without any touch of communal feelings. It no doubt began as a mutiny of soldiers, but soon turned into a revolt against British rule in general.
Know More About Our Freedom Struggle
- Freedom Struggle
- Nature of the Revolt of 1857
- Indian National Congress (I. N. C.)
- Partition of Bengal
- Rowlatt Act and Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
- Khilafat movement and Non-Cooperation Movement
- Salt March(Satyagraha and Three Round Table Conference)
- The Government of India Act, 1935
- Congress Ministries Resign and Pakistan Resolution
- Quit India Movement
- Azad Hind Fauj
- Mount-batten Plan and the Indian Independence Act