Chapter Wise Ecology and Environment
Mcq’s With Explanation

Today’s Topic: Protection of wildlife


These are most-important and most-expected Questions for IAS Prelims General Studies paper-1 (Ecology and Environment) of UPSC Civil Service exam. Every day Himalai is coming with different subjects questions and answers with explanation analysis, these Questions will be both theoretical and fact based. Every day preparation will make a way for success, keep up your daily IAS Exam preparation with Himalai subject wise, chapter wise and topic wise Mcq’s with answers and analysis. We are providing our daily program list so that aspirant can note it and keep a watch on Himalai Mock test blogs for updated questions and get prepare for the Exam.

EveryDay Program List

Sunday- Indian and world Geography

Monday-General issues on Environmental Ecology, bio-diversity and Climate Change

Tuesday- General Science

Wednesday- Indian Polity and Governance

Thursday- History of India and Indian National Movement

Friday- Economic and Social Development

Saturday-Current Affairs Concepts

Today’s Toipc: Global Warming and Climate Change

 

Q1. Consider the following statements:

  1. Global warming is a result of rise in proportion of atmospheric changes at different levels.
  2. About 0.5 to 7oC air temperature has been increased in 20th Century.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) Only 1             b) Only 2             c) Both 1 and 2              d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Global warming results due to rise in proportion of atmospheric green house gases (GHG) than their normal level. The use of GHG levels has been attributed to the process of industrialization, urbanization and pollution caused by vehicular, industrial, domestic and agricultural emission.

It has been estimated that the overall increase in the air temperature in 29th century has been about 0.5 to 0.70C. The 1990s saw seven out of ten warmest years of last century.

 

Q2. Which of the following are the main component gases of Green House Gases emission?

1.Carbon dioxide                 2. Methane                    3. Nitrogen                   4. Nitrous oxide

a) Only 1, 2 and 3                b) Only 1, 2 and 4         c) Only 3 and 4            d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     B

Explanation:    Global warming is an result of rise in proportion of atmospheric green house gases (GHG) than their normal level. The rise of GHG levels has been attributed to the process of industrialization, urbanization and pollution caused by vehicular, industrial, domestic an agricultural emission. The main component gases of GHG emissions are – carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide and ozone.

 

Q3. Which of the following organization contributed International Panel on climate change (IPCC)?

1.United Nations Environment programme (UNEP)

2.World Trade Organisation (WTO)

3. World Meteorological Organisation (WMO)

a) Only 1 and 2                  b) Only 1 and 3               c) Only 2 and 3              d) 1, 2 and3

Ans:     B

Explanation:    Intergovernmental panel on Comate Change (IPCC) is a scientific intergovernmental body. It was first established in 1988 by two United Nations Organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly through resolution 43/53.

 

Q4. Which of the following are the evidences of Global Warming?

  1. Increase in air temperatures.
  2. Melting of Mountain and Continental Glaciers.
  3. Spreading of Tropical diseases towards temperate and polar regions.

a) Only 1 and 2               b) Only 1, 2 and 3             c) Only 3 and 4                        d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     D

Explanation:    Following are the evidences of Global Warming:

(i) Increase in air temperatures.

(ii) Melting of Mountain and Continental Glaciers.

(iii) Warming of ocean water and Melting of Ice Sheets and Ice Bergs in Antarctic and Arctic Sea.

(iv) Thawing of permafrost areas.

(v) Greening of Taiga and Tundra Forests.

(vi) Spreading of Tropical diseases towards temperate and polar regions.

(vii) Increased frequency of extreme weather events.

Q5. Consider the following statements:

  1. Ozone layer is concentrated in the upper part of Troposphere.
  2. Ozone layer is considered as protective shield and earth’s umbrella.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. a) Only 1           b) Only 2             c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     B

Explanation:    Ozone layer is concentrated in stratosphere between altitudes of 12 km to 35 km from earth’s surface. It is considered as protective ultra violet (UV) solar radiation from reaching the earth’s surface. The presence of ozone layer in the stratosphere is of vital significance for all the biota including plants, animals and man in the biosphere. Hence the correct option is (b)

 

Q6. Consider the following statements:

  1. Ozone layer prevents ultra violet (UV) solar radiation from reaching the earth’s surface.
  2. The presence of ozone layer is of vital significance for plants, animals and man.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. a) Only 1                   b) Only 2                   c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Ozone layer is considered as protective shield and earth’s umbrella because it prevents ultra violet (UV) solar radiations from reaching the earth’s surface. Thus, the presence of ozone layer in the stratosphere is of vital significance for all biota including plants, animals and man in the biosphere. In the absence of this layer no life is possible in the biosphere because all the UV rays of the sun will reach earth’s surface and consequently temperature of the earth’s surface and lower atmosphere will rise to such an extent that the earth will turn into a blast furnace.

 

Q7. Which of the following effects on human health are caused by ozone depletion?

  1. Sunburn              2. Cataract                   3. Skin cancer

a) Only 1 and 2             b) Only 1 and 3             c) Only 2 and 3               d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans.     D

Explanation:    The upper stratosphere consists of considerable amounts of ozone which works as an effective screen for UV light. Ozone depletion causes increase in UV radiation. Sunburn, cataract, dyeing of the skin and skin cancer are caused by increased UV radiation. It weakens the immune system by suppressing the body’s resistance to octerin infections like measles, chickenpox and other viral diseases.

 

Q8. Which of the following are the ecological effects of global warming?

  1. Changes in the composition of atmospheric gases.
  2. Rise in the temperature of earth’s surface.
  3. Disturbance of hydrological cycle.
  4. Increase in the acidity of the ocean.

a) Only 1, 2 and 3               b) Only 1, 2 and 4                   c) Only 3 and 4                        d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:     D

Explanation:    The ecological effects of global warming are-

(i) Changes in the composition of atmospheric gases due to increased level of CO2 and resulting global heat imbalance

(ii) Rise in the temperature of earth’s surface, oceans and lower atmosphere

(iii) Hydrological cycle would be disturbed. Decrease in precipitation and soil moisture content in the most agricultural regions of the world would be observed

(iv) Acidity of the ocean may increase due to dissolution of more amount of CO2 in water,

(v) Increase of ozone depletion

 

Q9. Consider the following statements:

  1. Phyto and zooplankton are damaged by UV radiation.
  2. India signed the Montreal Protocol in 1992.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct:

  1. a) Only 1             b) Only 2                    c) Both 1 and 2                     d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:     C

Explanation:    Phyto and Zooplankton are damaged by UV radiation. In Zooplankton (microscopic animals), the breeding period is shortened by changes in radiation. Plankton form the basis of the marine food chain, any change in their number and species composition influence fish and selfish production.

India signed the Montreal Protocol in 1992 which aimed at controlling the production and consumption of Ozone depleting substances.

 

Q10. Consider the following statements:

  1. CO2 and CH2 together account of the green house gas emission.
  2. Without green house gases, most of the earth’s surface would be frozen with the mean air temperature of 180 C.

Which of the statements given above is / are correct?

a) Only 1             b) Only 2                     c) Both 1 and 2                        d) Neither 1 and 2

Ans.     C

Explanation:    Green house gases (GHG) that are responsible for green house effect in atmosphere include CO2, methane, chlorofluorocarbon, oxides of Nitrogen, sulphur hexafluoride and water vapours. GHG found in atmosphere cover the earth like a blanket. Although high concentration of these gases are harmful to environment, if these gases would not have been there then the temperature of the earth would have been – 18oC or 19oC. Of all the green house gases emitted in the atmosphere CO2 and CH4 are having maximum concentration, they both together account for 90% of the GHG emission.

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