Himalai Celebrating 20th-year celebration, on this eve Himalai extending helping hands to the UPSC-IAS
Most important exam oriented Current Affairs Concepts:

1. Nag Anti-Tank Guided Missile

Nag is a third-generation, fire-and-forget, anti-tank guided missile developed by India’s state-owned Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) to support both mechanised infantry and airborne forces of the Indian Army.

The missile incorporates an advanced passive homing guidance system and possesses high single-shot kill probability. It is designed to destroy modern main battle tanks and other heavily armoured targets.

Nag can be launched from land and air-based platforms. The land version is currently available for integration on the Nag missile carrier (NAMICA), which is derived from a BMP-2 tracked infantry combat vehicle.

The helicopter-launched configuration, designated as helicopter-launched NAG (HELINA), can be fired from Dhruv advanced light helicopter (ALH) and HAL Rudra (ALH WSI) attack helicopter.

2. Sahara Forest Project

Vegetables are sprouting in the desert at the Sahara Forest Project’s at Aqaba, Jordan. The project draws on the sun, saltwater, and carbon dioxide to grow food and generate clean energy and freshwater. The new three-hectare launch station will be able to grow around 286,600 pounds of vegetables a year, and produce over 2.5 gallons of water a day.

The Sahara Forest Project is centered around the core technologies of saltwater-cooled greenhouses, concentrated solar power, and desert revegetation practices. They’ll pave the way for larger facilities at the Aqaba launch station, which already boasts thriving greenery. The station is around the size of four football fields, and includes two greenhouses with a total of 14,531 square feet of growing space. There’s also 34,445 square feet of outdoor planting space.

3. Maharatna, Navratna and Miniratna

The eligibility criteria laid down by the Government for grant of Maharatna, Navratna and Miniratna status to Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) are following:

Criteria for grant of Maharatna status :
The CPSEs fulfilling the following criteria are eligible to be considered for grant of Maharatna status.
1. Having Navratna status.
2. Listed on Indian stock exchange with minimum prescribed public shareholding under SEBI regulations.
3. Average annual turnover of more than Rs. 25,000 crore, during the last 3 years.
4. Average annual net worth of more than Rs. 15,000 crore, during the last 3 years.
5. Average annual net profit after tax of more than Rs. 5,000 crore, during the last 3 years.
6. Should have significant global presence/international operations.

Criteria for grant of Navratna status :
The Miniratna Category – I and Schedule ‘A’ CPSEs, which have obtained ‘excellent’ or ‘very good’ rating under the Memorandum of Understanding system in three of the last five years, and have composite score of 60 or above in the six selected performance parameters, namely,
1. Net profit to net worth,
2. Manpower cost to total cost of production/services,
3. Profit before depreciation, interest and taxes to capital employed,
4. Profit before interest and taxes to turnover,
5. Earning per share and
6. Inter-sectoral performance.

Criteria for grant of Miniratna status :-
The CPSEs which have made profits in the last three years continuously and have positive net worth are eligible to be considered for grant of Miniratna status.

Presently, there are 7 Maharatna, 16 Navratna and 71 Miniratna CPSEs.

4. Dumping

When goods are exported to another country at a price which is less than what it is sold for in the home country or when the export price is less than the cost of production in the home country, then those goods have been dumped.

Home Market Price – Export Sales Price = Margin of dumping
The Department of Commerce in the Union Ministry of Commerce and Industry has an Anti-dumping Unit which investigates cases where the domestic industry (domestic producers) provide evidence that dumping has taken place by producers abroad. They also defend cases where allegations of dumping are brought against Indian exporters by foreign governments.

There is a well established process which is followed where questionnaires are sent to all stakeholders and evidence is collected in a time-bound fashion to either prove or disprove that dumping has taken place.

If the good is alleged to be dumped from a non-market country (a country where there are considerable distortions to the market through government subsidies) then the Anti –dumping cell will calculate what the “normal” price of the product should be in the home market. The normal price will reflect the market price of the product had it been produced in the exporting country without these subsidies. If necessary, the price of such a commodity in a similar market (say a neighbouring country at the same level of development as the exporting country) will be considered as the normal price.

If there is evidence of dumping then the Government of India will levy an anti-dumping duty on that commodity for a period of five years and will review the need for continuation of duty thereafter.

Countervailing Duty: To encourage exports, government grants subsidy to exporters which results in decreased cost of production for them. Hence exporters are able to export at cheaper rates. It largely affects producers of importing country.

5. Fame India Scheme

Government of India has notified FAME India Scheme [Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India], with the objective to support hybrid/electric vehicles market development and Manufacturing eco-system. The scheme has 4 focus areas i.e. Technology development, Demand Creation, Pilot Projects and Charging Infrastructure.

The FAME India Scheme is aimed at incentivising all vehicle segments i.e. 2 Wheeler, 3 Wheeler Auto, Passenger 4 Wheeler Vehicle, Light Commercial Vehicles and Buses. The scheme covers Hybrid & Electric technologies like Mild Hybrid, Strong Hybrid, Plug in Hybrid & Battery Electric Vehicles.

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