Hiroshima and Nagasaki Day 2018
Ban Nuclear Weapons 2018
The anti-nuclear movement is a social movement that opposes various nuclear technologies. Some direct action groups, environmental movements, and professional organizations have identified themselves with the movement at the local, national, or international level. Major anti-nuclear groups include the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, and the Nuclear Information and Resource Service. The initial objective of the movement was nuclear disarmament, though since the late 1960s opposition has included the use of nuclear power. Many anti-nuclear groups oppose both nuclear power and nuclear weapons. The formation of green parties in the 1970s and 1980s was often a direct result of anti-nuclear politics.
Scientists and diplomats have debated nuclear weapons policy since before the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The public became concerned about nuclear weapons testing from about 1954, following extensive nuclear testing in the Pacific. In 1963, many countries ratified the Partial Test Ban Treaty which prohibited atmospheric nuclear testing.
Some local opposition to nuclear power emerged in the early 1960s, and in the late 1960s, some members of the scientific community began to express their concerns. In the early 1970s, there were large protests about a proposed nuclear power plant in Wyhl, West Germany. The project was canceled in 1975 and anti-nuclear success at Wyhl inspired opposition to nuclear power in other parts of Europe and North America. Nuclear power became an issue of major public protest in the 1970s and while opposition to nuclear power continues, increasing public support for nuclear power has re-emerged over the last decade in light of growing awareness of global warming and renewed interest in all types of clean energy (see the Pro-nuclear movement).
A protest against nuclear power occurred in July 1977 in Bilbao, Spain, with up to 200,000 people in attendance. Following the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, an anti-nuclear protest was held in New York City, involving 200,000 people. In 1981, Germany’s largest anti-nuclear power demonstration took place to protest against the Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant west of Hamburg; some 100,000 people came face to face with 10,000 police officers. The largest protest was held on June 12, 1982, when one million people demonstrated in New York City against nuclear weapons. A 1983 nuclear weapons protest in West Berlin had about 600,000 participants. In May 1986, following the Chernobyl disaster, an estimated 150,000 to 200,000 people marched in Rome to protest against the Italian nuclear program. In the US, public opposition preceded the shutdown of the Shoreham, Yankee Rowe, Millstone 1, Rancho Seco, Maine Yankee, and many other nuclear power plants.
For many years after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, nuclear power was off the policy agenda in most countries, and the anti-nuclear power movement seemed to have won its case. Some anti-nuclear groups disbanded. In the 2000s (decade), however, following public relations activities by the nuclear industry, advances in nuclear reactor designs, and concerns about climate change, nuclear power issues came back into energy policy discussions in some countries. The 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents subsequently undermined the nuclear power industry’s proposed renaissance and revived nuclear opposition worldwide, putting governments on the defensive. As of 2016, countries such as Australia, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Malaysia, New Zealand, and Norway have no nuclear power stations and remain opposed to nuclear power. Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland are phasing-out nuclear power. Globally, more nuclear power reactors have closed than opened in recent years.
“Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones” Declaration
There are already five international treaties for a “Nuclear Weapon Free Zones Declaration” in the world, which promise (1) not to bring nuclear weapons into their zones or not to transfer these weapons to other countries, and instead ask (2) not to threaten or attack their zones with nuclear weapons.
“Nuclear Weapon Free Zone” Declaration (Treaty) Signing and Effective Dates
1 Antarctic Treaty Dec. 1959 singed and effective
2 Latin America and the Caribbean Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Feb. 1967 signed and effective
3 South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Aug. 1985 signed and effective
4 Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Dec. 1995 signed and effective
5 African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Apr. 1996 signed, still-pending
One hundred thirteen countries out of 191 in the world are involved in these treaties. More than 50% of the people on earth strongly wish for nuclear weapon free zones and side with these treaties. The conclusion of a nuclear-free treaty in five countries in Central Asia has been in progress. Japan is located In Northeast Asia (Japan, Korea, North Korea, and China), where lots of efforts have been taken but unfortunately the talks do not seem to be progressing. The idea of “eliminating nuclear weapons” is an extension of the idea that Hiroshima and Nagasaki should never be repeated again. 77% of cities and towns in Japan declared their wish for a “Nuclear Free Government.” However, many residents do not even know the fact of their cities’ nuclear-free declaration. Students and members of society, let’s think about how much the earth would lose if nuclear weapons were used. Recall that today’s nuclear weapons have 3,300 times the power and energy compared with Hiroshima’s bomb and after reflecting on what he or she has learned so far, think what each person can do. One person’s power is small, but great power is never to be generated unless one takes the first step.
About Hiroshima and Nagasaki Day
Hiroshima Day observed every year 6th Of August. Hiroshima Day commemorates 6th of August 1945, the day when the atomic bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima by the United States of America, followed a few days later by another dropped on the city of Nagasaki.
A uranium gun-type atomic bomb called Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, followed by a plutonium implosion-type bomb called Fat Man on the city of Nagasaki on August 9. Little Boy exploded 2,000 feet above Hiroshima in a blast equal to 12-15,000 tons of TNT, destroying five square miles of the city. Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects of the atomic bombings killed 90,000–166,000 people in Hiroshima and 39,000–80,000 in Nagasaki; roughly half of the deaths in each city occurred on the first day. During the following months, large numbers died from the effect of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries, compounded by illness and malnutrition. In both cities, most of the dead were civilians, although Hiroshima had a sizable military garrison.
The bombings effectively ended World War II by bringing about the surrender of Japan, but at a terrible price – the two cities were destroyed and casualties, mostly civilians, were estimated at around 200,000, with many more people dying later from injuries and illness. This event shows the danger of using nuclear weapons.
Hiroshima Day is now a focus for anti-war and anti-nuclear discussions and demonstrations. Hiroshima Day also observed as Anti-Nuclear Day also called A-Bomb Day. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony to console the victims of the atomic bombs and to pray for the realization of lasting world peace. The ceremony is held in front of the Memorial Cenotaph in the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Participants include the families of the deceased and people from all over the world.
What’s the difference between Hiroshima’s bomb and Nagasaki’s?
First, the dates of the A-bombing are different. Hiroshima was bombed on August 6th and Nagasaki on August 9th. The plane was an American B-29 and the crew originally planned to drop the bomb on Kokura in Northern Kyushu, but they were unable to identify the location due to thick clouds and dropped it on Nagasaki City instead. Also, Uranium 235 was used in Hiroshima’s bomb whereas Plutonium 239 was used in Nagasaki’s. The radiation released at the time of the explosion in Nagasaki was mainly gamma rays, but some neutron rays also were emitted in Hiroshima’s. The point of explosion in the air (epicenter) was calculated at 580 meters above the ground in Hiroshima and 500 meters in Nagasaki. According to the report, the power of the explosion was equal to fifteen thousand tons of TNT in Hiroshima and twenty-one thousand tons in Nagasaki.
The Little Boy bomb (Hiroshima Bomb) (Weight: approx. 4 tons, Diameter: 70cm, Length: 3m) Materials declassified by the U.S. government on December 6, 1960.
The Fat Man bomb (Nagasaki Bomb) (Weight: approx. 4.5 tons, Diameter: 150cm, Length: 3.2m) Materials declassified by the U.S. government on December 6, 1960.
Source: Wikipedia, ippnw.org, tut2learn