Himalai Celebrating 20th-year celebration, on this eve Himalai extending helping hands to the UPSC-IAS Aspirants of June 2018.

Most important exam oriented Current Affairs Concepts:

1. Malaria

Malaria is a life-threatening disease. It‘s typically transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. Infected mosquitoes carry the Plasmodium parasite. When this mosquito bites man, the parasite is released into his bloodstream. Once the parasites are inside his body, they travel to the liver, where they mature. After several days, the mature parasites enter the bloodstream and begin to infect red blood cells. Within 48 to 72 hours, the parasites inside the red blood cells multiply, causing the infected cells to burst open. The parasites continue to infect red blood cells, resulting in symptoms that occur in cycles that last two to three days at a time. Malaria is typically found in tropical and subtropical climates where the parasites can live. Note: Indian Meteorological Department has announced that it is working on a forecasting system that will give 15 days warning on likelihood of a Malaria in different regions of the country.

2. Chikungunya

Chikungunya is characterized by an abrupt onset of fever frequently accompanied by joint pain. Other common signs and symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash. The joint pain is often very debilitating, but usually lasts for a few days or may be prolonged to weeks. Hence the virus can cause acute, sub acute or chronic disease. The virus is transmitted from human to human by the bites of infected female mosquitoes. Most commonly, the mosquitoes involved are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, two species which can also transmit other mosquito-borne viruses, including dengue. These mosquitoes can be found biting throughout daylight hours, though there may be peaks of activity in the early morning and late afternoon. Both species are found biting outdoors, but Ae. aegypti will also readily feed indoors. After the bite of an infected mosquito, onset of illness occurs usually between 4 and 8 days but can range from 2 to 12 days. Note: Indian Meteorological Department has announced that it is working on a forecasting system that will give 15 days warning on likelihood of a Malaria in different reagions of the country.

3. Rutland Island

It involves diversion of 49.978 acres forest of which 0.84 ha falls in the Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park and 49.138 ha reserve forest within 10km of the Eco Sensitive Zone. The island is very rich in marine life and was once home to the indigenous Andamanese group ‗Jangil‘ or Rutland Jarawa. DRDO has been struggling to get its long range missile test facility since 2012 when the proposal was moved across the government. Rutland Island is vital to DRDO‘s long-term plans to have a comprehensive testing facility to identify and track long-range missile tests. The Standing Committee of the National Board of Wildlife approved the project, ―considering the strategic importance of the project for country‘s defence‖.

4. World’s First Hybrid Aeroboat

The world‘s first hybrid aeroboat – a boat capable of travelling across water, snow, sand and land. Its speed around 45-50 km/hr to 150 km/hr and even more on water. These speed levels are critical, especially during search and rescue operations, where sometimes every minute of swiftness can result in saving lives, as well as frequency in transportation of both passengers and cargo. The Aeroboat is a joint Indian-Russian venture designed by IIAAT Holding, a St. Petersburg.

5. ‘Vatsalya – Maatri Amrit Kosh’

Vatsalya – Maatri Amrit Kosh is established in collaboration with the Norwegian government, Oslo University and Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI). ―Vatsalya – Maatri Amrit Kosh‖ opened at Lady Hardinge Medical College in collaboration with the Norwegian government, Oslo University and NIPI Newborn Project, is a national human milk bank and lactation counseling centre that will collect, pasteurize, test and safely store milk that has been donated by lactating mothers and make it available for infants in need. In addition, this facility will protect, promote and support breastfeeding of their own healthy mothers by providing lactation support to mothers through dedicated lactation counselors. This project will not only act as a dedicated centre to support breastfeeding and improve infant survival but also act as the teaching, training and demonstration site for other milk banks to be established under the Ministry Of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.

6. Foreign Direct Investment – FDI

Foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment made by a company or individual in one country in business interests in another country. Generally, FDI takes places when an investor establishes foreign business operations or acquires foreign business assets, including establishing ownership or controlling interest in a foreign company. Foreign direct investments are distinguished from portfolio investments in which an investor merely purchases equities of foreign-based companies. As per , United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) India continue to remain as a favorite nation for FDI.

7. KELT-9b

This is the hottest gas giant planet that has ever been discovered, it is like Jupiter- so hot, it’s being vaporized by its own star. With a dayside temperature of more than 7,800 degrees Fahrenheit (4,600 Kelvin), KELT-9b is a planet that is hotter than most stars. But its blue A-type star, called KELT-9, is even hotter in fact, it is probably unraveling the planet through evaporation. KELT-9b is 2.8 times more massive than Jupiter, but only half as dense. Scientists would expect the planet to have a smaller radius, but the extreme radiation from its host star has caused the planet’s atmosphere to puff up like a balloon. Because the planet is tidally locked to its star — as the moon is to Earth — one side of the planet is always facing toward the star, and one side is in perpetual darkness. Molecules such as water, carbon dioxide and methane can’t form on the dayside because it is bombarded by too much ultraviolet radiation. The properties of the night side are still mysterious — molecules may be able to form there, but probably only temporarily. The KELT-9 star is only 300 million years old, which is young in star time. It is more than twice as large, and nearly twice as hot, as our sun. Given that the planet’s atmosphere is constantly blasted with high levels of ultraviolet radiation, the planet may even be shedding a tail of evaporated planetary material like a comet.


The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is the first treaty negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization. It developed in response to the globalization of the tobacco epidemic. It consists Price and tax measures to reduce the demand for tobacco. And also it consists Non-price measures to reduce the demand for tobacco.

9. Antibiotic resistance Antibiotics are medicines used to prevent and treat bacterial infections.

Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of these medicines. Bacteria, not humans or animals, become antibiotic-resistant. These bacteria may infect humans and animals, and the infections they cause are harder to treat than those caused by non-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic resistance leads to higher medical costs, prolonged hospital stays, and increased mortality. The world urgently needs to change the way it prescribes and uses antibiotics. Even if new medicines are developed, without behaviour change, antibiotic resistance will remain a major threat. Behaviour changes must also include actions to reduce the spread of infections through vaccination, hand washing, practicing safer sex, and good food hygiene.
Who divided antibiotics into three as given below:
a) The WHO has now recommended that antibiotics in the ‗access‘ group be available at all times as treatment for a wide range of common infections. This includes amoxicillin, a widely-used antibiotic to treat infections such as pneumonia.
b) The watch‘ group covers antibiotics that are recommended as first or second choice treatment for a small number of infections.
c) The third group, ‗reserve‘, includes antibiotics such as colistin and some cephalosporin‘s that should be considered last-resort options, and used only in the most severe circumstances
When all other alternatives have failed, such as for life-threatening infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria.

10. Kaladam Project

The Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project is a project that will connect the eastern Indian seaport of Kolkata with Sittwe seaport in Rakhine State, Myanmar by sea. In Myanmar, it will then link Sittwe seaport to Paletwa, Chin State via the Kaladan river boat route, and then from Paletwa by road to Mizoram state in Northeast India.

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