Himalai Celebrating 20th-year celebration, on this eve Himalai extending helping hands to the UPSC-IAS
Most important exam oriented Current Affairs Concepts:

1. Chakmas and Hajongs

The Chakmas and Hajongs are ethnic people who lived in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, most of which are located in Bangladesh. Chakmas are predominantly Buddhists, while Hajongs are Hindus. They are found in northeast India, West Bengal, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.

The Chakmas and Hajongs living in India are Indian citizens. Some of them, mostly from Mizoram, live in relief camps in southern Tripura due to tribal conflict with Mizos. These Indian Chakmas living in Tripura take part in Mizoram elections too. The Election Commission sets up polling booths in relief camps.

The Chakmas and Hajongs living in the Chittagong Hill Tracts fled erstwhile East Pakistan in 1964-65, since they lost their land to the development of the Kaptai Dam on the Karnaphuli River. In addition, they also faced religious persecution as they were non-Muslims and did not speak Bengali. They eventually sought asylum in India. The Indian government set up relief camps in Arunachal Pradesh and a majority of them continue to live there even after five decades. According to the 2011 census, 47,471 Chakmas live in Arunachal Pradesh alone.

2. Map of the water trapped in the uppermost layer of the Moon’s soil

Scientists from Brown University, US, have created a map of the water trapped in the uppermost layer of the Moon’s soil — which may prove useful to future lunar explorers — using data from an instrument aboard India’s Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft.

The study builds on the initial discovery in 2009 of water and a related molecule called hydroxyl, which consists of one atom each of hydrogen and oxygen, in the lunar soil.
Scientists used a new calibration of data taken from NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper, which was aboard Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, to quantify how much water is present on a global scale.

3. Chennai-Vladivostok Sea Route

Importance of Chennai-Vladivostok Sea Route Reduces transfer time of cargo between Chennai and Vladivostok to 24 days from 40 days taken from India to Far East Russia via Europe.

International Play Russia sensitive to growing Chinese presence in Russia’s Far-eastern region especially with population from China increasing in the region resulting in changing demographics. Presence of India will balance the Chinese presence.

Indian is very wary of growing Chinese presence in the South East regions and in Europe. The OBOR has potential to bring significant trade benefits to Chine at the cost of India.

Importance of Far Eastern Federal District (Vladivostok) Far Eastern Federal District is twice the size of India and is largest and least populated of the eight federal districts of Russia Vladivostok region has wealth of natural resources such as timber, mineral resources (coal & diamonds), precious metal deposits (gold, platinum, tin, and tungsten) and oil and natural gas. Russia announced several initiatives to attract investments in the region, including an agricultural SEZ, the Vladivostok Free Port Project.

Indian companies will find opportunities include in such sectors as agriculture, mining, port development and infrastructure, diamond processing, agro-processing. India- Russia Relations Evolution Few months back Russia announced visa-free entry for Indians in its Far East.

4. Wood is Good campaign

The programme brings together experts from India and the United States to develop technologies, tools and methods of forest management to meet the technical challenges of managing forests for the health of ecosystem, carbon stocks, biodiversity and livelihood. Some of the objectives of the conference include – exploring issues and opportunities for ecosystem approach to land management in India; discussing how the approaches and tools developed under the Forest-PLUS programme can be used to improve forest management in India and to document and disseminate that learning with a wider group.

The Government’s commitment to increase the country’s forest cover from 24% to 33% of the geographical area and creating an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tons of CO2 equivalent in forests.

5. Mouse Deer

The Indian Spotted Chevrotain (Moschiola meminna) is often referred to as the Mouse Deer. This diminutive animal is nocturnal in habit, making it very difficult to see one in daylight. Occasionally a chevrotain may be seen late in the evening or early in the morning.

The Indian Spotted Chevrotain is a denizen of evergreen and deciduous forests of India and may be partial to well-watered areas. They are known to lead a predominantly solitary life. Very little is known about the ecology and behaviour of the Indian Chevrotain with much of the information being in the form of anecdotal observations and sight records. Adults are mostly solitary except at the time of courtship. During the day, chevrotains stay concealed in dens that may be in hollows at the base of trees or in rocky crevices. Being ruminants, they have a four-chambered stomach like other deer though it is not considered to be a true deer. They also have many characters that are more pig-like. They lack antlers that most true deer sport and instead posses well developed canine teeth, which are probably used in fights.